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STUDY OBJECTIVE 1: To analyze the inheritance patterns
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of maternal effects
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maternal parent, with dextral coiling dominant to sinistral coiling. STUDY OBJECTIVE 2: To analyze the patterns of cytoplas-
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Patterns of non-Mendelian inheritance fall into two categories: maternal effects and cytoplasmic inheritance. Maternal effects are illustrated by snail-shell coiling. The direction of coiling is determined by the genotype of the
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Cytoplasmic inheritance is usually seen in organelles, sym-
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
17. Non Mendelian Inheritance
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Exercises and Problems
bionts, or parasites that have their own genetic material. Chloroplasts and mitochondria have relatively small, circular chromosomes with prokaryotic af nities. An interaction exists between organelles and nuclei; the organelles do not encode all their own proteins and enzymes. Mitochondrial defects can be inherited through nuclear genes or through the mitochondrion itself. A similar pattern is seen in chloroplasts. The processes of cytoplasmic inheritance are exempli ed by symbiotic bacteria in Paramecium. Plasmids are autonomous segments of DNA. In prokaryotes, R and Col plasmids, as well as the F factor, have been well studied. Plasmids usually carry an operon for transfer and insertion sequences for attachment to cell chromo-
somes and to each other. Hence, they represent highly mobile segments of genetic material. STUDY OBJECTIVE 3: To analyze the patterns of imprint-
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Imprinting is a phenomenon of gene activity affected by the parent of origin. Due to a pattern of gene methylation that differs in male and female parents, a gene may show differential activity depending on the parent from which it came. More than twenty genes exhibiting this epigenetic phenomenon are known.
S O L V E D
PROBLEM 1: What possible phenotypes and genotypes could the female parent of a sinistrally coiled snail have Answer: If a snail is sinistrally coiled, its mother must have had the dd genotype, since sinistrality is recessive. If the female parent is a recessive homozygote, its mother must have contributed a recessive d allele. Therefore its mother (the grandmother) could have had either a Dd or dd genotype. Its daughter could therefore be either dextrally or sinistrally coiled (respectively). Thus, to answer the question, a sinistrally coiled snail could have had a mother that was either dextrally or sinistrally coiled, but only of the dd genotype. PROBLEM 2: You have just noticed a petite yeast colony
P R O B L E M S
meiosis, isolate the four products (spores) and allow them to grow separately under normal, aerobic conditions. If the ratio of petite to wild-type is 1:1, the mutation is of a nuclear gene. If progeny are wild-type, the mutation is in the mitochondrial genome and is of the neutral type. If progeny are mostly petites, the mutation is also in the mitochondrial genome, but it is of the suppressive type.
PROBLEM 3: Killer Paramecium with the genotype KK are mated with kk cells under a situation that allows cytoplasmic exchange. If the exconjugants undergo autogamy, what types of progeny would you expect Answer: Both exconjugants will be Kk, and since cytoplasmic exchange occurred, both cytoplasms will contain kappa. Autogamy will produce either KK or kk cells. Since at least one K gene is needed for the maintenance of kappa, the kk cells eventually lose the kappas and become sensitive. Thus, we expect 1/2 sensitive:1/2 killers.
growing in a petri plate under aerobic conditions. What type of petite is it Answer: The simplest way to determine the nature of the lesion resulting in the petite phenotype is to make a cross of the petite strain with a wild-type strain. After
E X E R C I S E S
DETERMINING NON-MENDELIAN INHERITANCE
A N D
P R O B L E M S*
1. J. Christian and C. Lemunyan have shown that mice raised under crowded conditions produce two generations with reduced growth rates. What sort of genetic control might exist, and how could this control be demonstrated 2. Describe the types of evidence that could be gathered to determine whether a trait in E. coli is controlled by chromosomal or plasmid genes. (See also CYTOPLASMIC INHERITANCE)
3. The maroon-like (ma-l) locus in Drosophila is inherited in an X-linked recessive fashion. If you cross a heterozygous female with a maroon-like male, all the progeny are wild-type. If the female progeny from this cross are mated again with maroon-like males, half of the females produce all maroon-like progeny, and the other half produce all wild-type progeny. Explain these results. (See also MATERNAL EFFECTS)
*Answers to selected exercises and problems are on page A-20.
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