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The fact that traits with continuous variation can be controlled by genes dispersed over the whole genome was shown by James Crow, who studied DDT resistance in Drosophila. A DDT-resistant strain of ies was created by growing them on increasing concentrations of the insecticide. Crow then systematically tested each chromosome for the amount of resistance it conferred. Susceptible ies were mated with resistant ies, and the sons from this cross were backcrossed. Offspring were
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different color classes down to the level of the eye s ability to perceive differences in wavelengths of light. In fact, we rapidly lose the ability to assign unique color classes to genotypes because the variation within each genotype soon causes the phenotypes to overlap. For example, with three loci, a color somewhat lighter than medium dark red may belong to the medium-dark-red class with
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
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18. Quantitative Inheritance
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Quantitative Inheritance
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In uence of environment on phenotypic distributions.
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James F. Crow (1916 ).
(Courtesy of Dr. James F. Crow.)
loci (polygenes) that contribute to the phenotype of this additive trait (box 18.1).
Signi cance of Polygenic Inheritance
The concept of additive traits is of great importance to genetic theory because it demonstrates that Mendelian rules of inheritance can explain traits that have a continuous distribution that is, Mendel s rules for discrete characteristics also hold for quantitative traits. Additive traits are also of practical interest. Many agricultural products, both plant and animal, exhibit polygenic inheritance, including milk production and fruit and vegetable yield. In addition, many human traits, such as height and IQ, appear to be polygenic, although with substantial environmental components. Historically, the study of quantitative traits began before the rediscovery of Mendel s work at the turn of the century. In fact, biologists in the early part of this century debated as to whether the Mendelians were correct or whether the biometricians were correct in regard to
then scored for the particular resistant chromosomes they contained (each chromosome had a visible marker) and were tested for their resistance to DDT. Sons were used in the backcross because there is no crossing over in males. Therefore, the sons would pass resistant and susceptible chromosomes on intact. Crow s results are shown in gure 18.7. As you can see, each chromosome has the potential to increase the y s resistance to DDT. Thus, each chromosome contains
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
18. Quantitative Inheritance
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Population Statistics
Table 18.1 Generalities from an Additive Model of Polygenic Inheritance
One Locus Number of gamete types produced by an F1 multihybrid Number of different F2 genotypes 2 (A, a) 3 (AA, Aa, aa) Two Loci 4 (AB, Ab, aB, ab) 9 (AABB, AABb, AAbb, AaBB, AaBb, Aabb, aaBB, aaBb, aabb) Three Loci 8 (ABC, ABc, AbC, Abc, aBC, aBc, abC, abc) 27 (AABBCC, AABBCc, AABBcc, AABbCC, AABbCc, AABbcc, AAbbCC, AAbbCc, AAbbcc, AaBBCC, AaBBCc, AaBBcc, AaBbCC, AaBbCc, AaBbcc, AabbCC, AabbCc, Aabbcc, aaBBCC, aaBBCc, aaBBcc, aaBbCC, aaBbCc, aaBbcc, aabbCC, aabbCc, aabbcc) Number of different F2 phenotypes Number of F2 as extreme as one parent or the other Distribution pattern of F2 phenotypes 3 1/4 (AA or aa) 1:2:1 5 1/16 (AABB or aabb) 1:4:6:4:1 7 1/64 (AABBCC or aabbcc) 1:6:15:20:15:6:1 (A 2n 1/4n a)2n 1 n Loci 2n
the rules of inheritance. Biometricians used statistical techniques to study traits characterized by continuous variation and claimed that single discrete genes were not responsible for the observed inheritance patterns. They were interested in evolutionarily important facets of the phenotype traits that can change slowly over time. Mendelians claimed that the phenotype was controlled by discrete genes. Eventually the Mendelians were proven correct, but the biometricians tools were the only ones suitable for studying quantitative traits. The biometric school was founded by F. Galton and K. Pearson, who showed that many quantitative traits, such as height, were inherited. They invented the statistical tools of correlation and regression analysis in order to study the inheritance of traits that fall into smooth distributions.
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