barcode reader vb.net source code Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition in Software

Paint Quick Response Code in Software Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition

Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
QR Code ISO/IEC18004 Decoder In None
Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications.
Quick Response Code Printer In None
Using Barcode generation for Software Control to generate, create Quick Response Code image in Software applications.
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
Quick Response Code Decoder In None
Using Barcode reader for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications.
QR Drawer In C#.NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create QR image in VS .NET applications.
18. Quantitative Inheritance
Making QR Code 2d Barcode In .NET
Using Barcode printer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create QR-Code image in ASP.NET applications.
QR Generation In .NET
Using Barcode generator for .NET Control to generate, create QR image in .NET framework applications.
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
QR Generator In VB.NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in .NET applications.
Printing Bar Code In None
Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create bar code image in Software applications.
Heritability
EAN-13 Supplement 5 Creator In None
Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create EAN-13 image in Software applications.
Make Bar Code In None
Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create bar code image in Software applications.
Table 18.5 Some Realized Heritabilities
Code 39 Extended Encoder In None
Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create Code 3 of 9 image in Software applications.
Code128 Creation In None
Using Barcode creation for Software Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set C image in Software applications.
Animal Cattle Poultry Trait Birth weight Milk yield Body weight Egg production Egg weight Birth weight Growth rate Litter size Wool length Fleece weight Heritability 0.49 0.30 0.31 0.30 0.60 0.06 0.30 0.15 0.55 0.40
Make USS 93 In None
Using Barcode printer for Software Control to generate, create Code 9/3 image in Software applications.
Paint Code128 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode encoder for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set A image in ASP.NET applications.
Swine
Code 128 Code Set A Generator In VS .NET
Using Barcode creator for Reporting Service Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set C image in Reporting Service applications.
Draw UPC A In None
Using Barcode generation for Microsoft Word Control to generate, create UPC Code image in Word applications.
Sheep
Code 39 Full ASCII Reader In None
Using Barcode decoder for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications.
Making Code 128 In None
Using Barcode creator for Word Control to generate, create Code-128 image in Office Word applications.
Figure 18.14 Realized heritability is the gain in yield divided by the selection differential when offspring are produced by parents with a mean yield that differs from that of the general population.
Bar Code Generator In Objective-C
Using Barcode maker for iPad Control to generate, create barcode image in iPad applications.
Data Matrix 2d Barcode Creation In None
Using Barcode creation for Microsoft Excel Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in Office Excel applications.
will be zero, and breeders will know that no matter how much selection they practice, they will not improve their crops and might as well not waste their time. Since this value is calculated after the breeding has been done, it is referred to as realized heritability. Some typical values for realized heritabilities are shown in table 18.5. The following example may help to clarify the calculation of realized heritability. The number of bristles on the sternopleurite, a thoracic plate in Drosophila, is under polygenic control. In a population of ies, the mean bristle number was 6.4. Three pairs of ies served as parents; they had a mean of 7.2 bristles. Their offspring had a mean of 6.6 bristles. Hence, YO 6.6, Y 6.4, and YP 7.2. Dividing the gain by the selection differential that is, substituting in equation 18.8 gives us H 6.6 7.2 6.4 6.4 0.2 0.8 0.25
self declines. After intense or prolonged selection, heritability may be zero. It does not mean that the trait is not controlled by genes, only that there is no longer a response to selection. Hence, heritability is speci c for a particular population at a particular time. Intense selection exhausts the genetic variability, rendering the response to selection, and thus the heritability itself, zero. Quantitative geneticists treat the realized heritability as an estimate of true heritability. True heritability is actually viewed in two different ways: as heritability in the narrow sense and heritability in the broad sense. We de ne these on the basis of partitioning of the variance of the quantitative character under study.
Partitioning of the Variance
Given that the variance of a distribution has genetic and environmental causes, and given that the variance is additive, we can construct the following formula: VPh in which VPh VG VE total phenotypic variance variance due to genotype variance due to environment VG VE
(18.9)
If both a low line and a high line were begun, and if both were carried over several generations, the heritability would be measured by the nal difference in means of the high and low lines (gain) divided by the cumulative selection differentials summed for both the high and low lines. Note from gure 18.13 that the response to selection declines with time as the selected population becomes homozygous for various alleles controlling the trait. As the response declines, the calculated heritability value it-
Throughout the rest of this discussion, we will stay with this model. We could construct a more complex variance model if there are interactions between variables. For example, if one genotype responded better in one soil condition than in another soil condition, this environment-genotype interaction would require a separate variance term (VGE). The variance due to the genotype (VG) can be further broken down according to the effects of additive polygenes (VA), dominance (VD), and epistasis (VI) to give us a nal formula: VPh VA VD VI VE
(18.10)
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
18. Quantitative Inheritance
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Eighteen
Quantitative Inheritance
We can now de ne the two commonly used and often confused measures of heritability. Heritability in the narrow sense is HN VA/VPh
(18.11)
This heritability is the proportion of the total phenotypic variance caused by additive genetic effects. It is the heritability of most interest to plant and animal breeders because it predicts the magnitude of the response under selection. Heritability in the broad sense is HB VG/VPh
(18.12)
This heritability is the proportion of the total phenotypic variance caused by all genetic factors, not just additive factors. It measures the extent to which individual differences in a population are caused by genetic differences. This measure is the one most often used by psychologists. We are concerned primarily with HN, heritability in the narrow sense.
Copyright © OnBarcode.com . All rights reserved.