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mation seemed to cast doubt on the charges of fraud. These on-again, off-again charges have been a focus of scienti c interest.
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Table 18.8 Concordance of Traits Between Identical and Fraternal Twins
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Identical (MZ) Twins (%) Hair color Eye color Blood pressure Handedness (left or right) Measles Clubfoot Tuberculosis Mammary cancer Schizophrenia Down syndrome Spina bi da Manic-depression 89 99.6 63 79 95 23 53 6 80 89 72 80 Fraternal (DZ) Twins (%) 22 28 36 77 87 2 22 3 13 7 33 20
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IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
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18. Quantitative Inheritance
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BOX 18.2
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he study of human behavioral genetics was at rst associated with the eugenics movement, founded in the late nineteenth century by Francis Galton, one of the founders of quantitative genetics. Eugenics was a movement designed to improve humanity by better breeding. This movement was tainted by bad science done by people with strong prejudices. However, although still controversial, the study of human behavioral genetics is back in vogue. The political climate has changed, and scienti c methods to study human behaviors have improved. Even some of the strongest critics against these studies have changed their minds when confronted with the discovery of particular behavioral genes through the mapping of quantitative trait loci. In addition, advocates for people with many human conditions, such as homosexuality and mental illness, feel that if these traits are shown to be genetic in origin, then those who have them will be treated as people with medical conditions rather than as social outcasts.
Ethics and Genetics
Human Behavioral Genetics
Even with better methods and more objective practitioners, the study of human behavioral genetics is still dif cult to achieve. Some traits are very poorly de ned and may be complex mixtures of phenotypes, such as schizophrenia. Other traits are just dif cult to de ne, such as alcoholism, criminal tendency, and aggressiveness. To make things more complicated, several recent studies that seemed to isolate genes for speci c behavioral traits were not veri ed or were later retracted. In one case, a gene for manic-depressive behavior was isolated in an Amish population. However, when the study was expanded, new cases were discovered that were not linked to the particular marker locus. The result was that a found genetic locus was
lost.To their credit, the workers were quick to retract their conclusions. Currently, there are intriguing results suggesting that divorce, aggression, and dyslexia are under genetic in uence. For example, in a recent study, investigators measured a heritability of 0.52 for divorce. This doesn t mean that divorce genes exist, but rather that genes for certain personality traits might predispose a person to divorce. We should make it clear that genetic control does not mean that the environment does not play a role in these traits, just that there are genes that are in uential also, sometimes very signi cantly. In retrospect, it should not be surprising that genes in uence much of our behavior. There are numerous animal studies con rming genetic control of behaviors, indicating that the same would be found in people. As long as the research is done in a competent fashion and the results are not politicized, human behavior genetics should not only be a reasonable area of study, but an exciting one as we learn more about ourselves.
S U M M A R Y
STUDY OBJECTIVE 1: To understand the patterns of inheritance of phenotypic traits controlled by many loci 531 535 Some genetically controlled phenotypes do not fall into discrete categories. This type of variation is referred to as quantitative, continuous, or metrical variation. The genetic control of this variation is referred to as polygenic control. If the number of controlling loci is small, and offspring fall into recognizable classes, it is possible to analyze the genetic control of the phenotypes with standard methods. Polygenes controlling DDT resistance are located on all chromosomes in Drosophila. STUDY OBJECTIVE 2: To investigate the way that geneticists and statisticians describe and analyze normal distributions of phenotypes 535 542 When phenotypes fall into a continuous distribution, the methods of genetic analysis change. We must describe a distribution using means, variances, and standard deviations. Then we must describe the relationship between two variables using variances and correlation coef cients.
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