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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
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18. Quantitative Inheritance
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Eighteen
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Quantitative Inheritance
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9. A plant with a genotype of aabb and a height of 40 cm is crossed with a plant with a genotype of AABB and a height of 60 cm. If each dominant allele contributes to height additively, what is the expected height of the F1 progeny 10. If the F1 generation in the cross in problem 9 is selfed, what proportion of the F2 offspring would you expect to be 50 cm tall 11. Two strains of wheat were compared for the time required to mature. Strain X required fourteen days, and strain Y required twenty-eight days. The strains were crossed, and the F1 generation was selfed. One hundred F2 progeny out of 6,200,000 matured in fourteen days or less. How many genes may be involved in maturation
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POPULATION STATISTICS
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Pair 1 2 3 4 5 6
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Brother 180 173 168 170 178 180
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Sister 175 162 165 160 165 157
Pair 7 8 9 10 11
Brother 178 186 183 165 168
Sister 165 163 168 160 157
How can environmental factors in uence this heritability value (See also HERITABILITY) 14. You determine the following variance components for leaf width in a particular species of plant: Additive genetic variance (VA) Dominance genetic variance (VD) Epistatic variance (VI) Environmental variance (VE) 4.0 1.8 0.5 2.5
12. A geneticist wished to know if variation in the number of egg follicles produced by chickens was inherited. As a rst step in his experiments, he wished to determine if the number of eggs laid could be used to predict the number of follicles. If this were true, he could then avoid killing the chickens to obtain the data he needed. He obtained the following data from fourteen chickens.
Chicken Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Eggs Laid 39 29 46 28 31 25 49 57 51 21 42 38 34 47 Ovulated Follicles 37 34 52 26 32 25 55 65 44 25 45 26 29 30
Calculate the broad sense and narrow sense heritabilities. (See also HERITABILITY)
SELECTION EXPERIMENTS
15. Psychologists refer to defecation rate in rats as emotionality. The data shown in the accompanying gure (data modi ed from Broadhurst, 1960, Experiments in Personality, vol. 1, London: Eysenck) show mean emotionality scores during ve generations in high and low selection lines. In the nal generation, the parental mean was 4 for the high line and 0.9 for the low line. The cumulative selection differential is 5 for each line. Calculate realized heritability overall, and separate heritabilities for each line. Do these differ Why Why was the response to selection asymmetrical (See also HERITABILITY)
Calculate a correlation coef cient. Graph the data, and then calculate the slope and y-intercept of the regression line. Draw the regression line on the same graph. 13. The following table (data from Ehrman and Parsons, 1976, The Genetics of Behavior, 121, Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates) gives heights in centimeters of eleven pairs of brothers and sisters. Calculate a correlation coef cient and a heritability. Is this realized heritability, heritability in the broad sense, or heritability in the narrow sense
16. Data were gathered during a selection experiment for six-week body weight in mice. Graph these data and calculate a realized heritability. (See also HERITABILITY )
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
18. Quantitative Inheritance
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Critical Thinking Questions
High Line Generation 0 1 2 3 4 5 Y 21 24 24 26 26 26 22 23 23 24 23 YP YO Y 21
Low Line YP YO
Estimate the dominance and epistatic components, and calculate heritabilities in the narrow and broad sense.
Variance Components VPh VA VE VD Thorax Length 100 43 51 Eggs Laid in Four Days 100 18 38
18 18 18 16 16
20 20 20 19 18
HERITABILITY
17. Outstanding athletic ability is often found in several members of a family. Devise a study to determine to what extent athletic ability is inherited. (What is outstanding athletic ability ) 18. Variations in stature are almost entirely due to heredity. Yet average height has increased substantially since the Middle Ages, and the increase in the height of children of immigrants to the United States, as compared with the height of the immigrants themselves, is especially noteworthy. How can these observations be reconciled 19. Would you expect good nutrition to increase or decrease the heritability of height 20. Two adult plants of a particular species have extreme phenotypes for height (1 foot tall and 5 feet tall), a quantitative trait. If you had only one uniformly lighted greenhouse, how would you determine whether the variation in plant height is environmentally or genetically determined How would you attempt to estimate the number of allelic pairs that may be involved in controlling this trait 21. The components of variance for two characters of D. melanogaster are shown in the following table (data from A. Robertson, Optimum Group Size in Progeny Testing, Biometrics, 13:442 50, 1957).
22. In a mouse population, the average tail length is 10 cm. Six mice with an average tail length of 15 cm are interbred. The mean tail length in their progeny is 13.5 cm. What is the realized heritability 23. The narrow sense heritability of egg weight in chickens in one coop is 0.5. A farmer selects for heavier eggs by breeding a few chickens with heavier eggs. He nds a difference of 9 g in the mean egg weights of selected and unselected chickens. By how much can he expect egg weight to increase in the selected chickens 24. If, in a population of swine, the narrow sense heritability of maturation weight is 0.15, the phenotypic variance is 100 lb2, the total genetic variance is 50 lb2, and the epistatic variance is 0, calculate the dominance genetic variance and the environmental variance. 25. A group of four-month-old hogs has an average weight of 170 pounds. The average weight of selected breeders is 185 pounds. If the heritability of weight is 40%, what is the expected average weight of the rst generation progeny
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