 Home
 Products
 Integration
 Tutorial
 Barcode FAQ
 Purchase
 Company
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition in Software
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition Recognizing QR Code JIS X 0510 In None Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications. Quick Response Code Drawer In None Using Barcode creation for Software Control to generate, create QR Code ISO/IEC18004 image in Software applications. IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
Read QRCode In None Using Barcode recognizer for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. QR Code 2d Barcode Creator In Visual C# Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code JIS X 0510 image in VS .NET applications. 19. Population Genetics: The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and Mating Systems
Draw QR Code In .NET Using Barcode creation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in ASP.NET applications. QR Code Drawer In Visual Studio .NET Using Barcode generator for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in VS .NET applications. The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001 Create QR Code JIS X 0510 In Visual Basic .NET Using Barcode drawer for .NET framework Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in .NET framework applications. UPCA Generation In None Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create GS1  12 image in Software applications. Nineteen
Drawing Code 128B In None Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create Code128 image in Software applications. EAN / UCC  13 Encoder In None Using Barcode creator for Software Control to generate, create EAN13 Supplement 5 image in Software applications. Population Genetics: The HardyWeinberg Equilibrium and Mating Systems
Drawing Barcode In None Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create barcode image in Software applications. Printing Bar Code In None Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create bar code image in Software applications. Another way of demonstrating the properties of the HardyWeinberg equilibrium for the onelocus, twoallele case in sexually reproducing diploids is by simply observing the offspring of a randomly mating, in nitely large population. Let the initial frequencies of the three genotypes be any values that sum to one; for example, let X, Y, and Z be the proportions of the AA, Aa, and aa genotypes, respectively. The proportions of offspring after one generation of random mating are as shown in table 19.1. For example, the probability that an AA individual will mate with an AA individual is X X, or X2. Since all the offspring of this mating are AA, they are counted only under the AA column of offspring in table 19.1. When all possible matings are counted, the offspring with each genotype are summed. The proportion of AA offspring is X2 XY (1/4)Y2, which factors to (X [1/2]Y )2. Recall that the frequency of an allele is the frequency of its homozygote plus half the frequency of the heterozygote. Hence, X (1/2)Y is the frequency of A, since X f(AA) and Y f(Aa). If p f(A), then (X [1/2]Y )2 is p2.Thus, after one generation of random mating, the proportion of AA homozygotes is p2. Similarly, the frequency of aa homozygotes after one generation of random mating is Z2 YZ (1/4)Y 2, which 2 2 factors to (Z [1/2]Y ) , or q . The frequency of heterozygotes when summed and factored (table 19.1) is 2(X [1/2]Y ) (Z [1/2]Y ), or 2pq.Therefore, after one generation of random mating, the three genotypes (AA, Aa, and aa) occur as p2, 2pq, and q2. Looking at the rst property of the HardyWeinberg equilibrium, that allelic frequencies do not change generation after generation, we can ask, Have the allelic frequencies changed from one generation to the next (from GTIN  8 Encoder In None Using Barcode creator for Software Control to generate, create UPC  8 image in Software applications. Printing UPCA Supplement 5 In Java Using Barcode creator for Java Control to generate, create GTIN  12 image in Java applications. the parents to the offspring) Before random mating, the frequency of the A allele is, by de nition, p: f(A) p f(AA) (1 2)f(Aa) X (1 2)Y UPCA Supplement 5 Creator In None Using Barcode maker for Excel Control to generate, create UPC Symbol image in Microsoft Excel applications. Encoding Barcode In ObjectiveC Using Barcode creation for iPad Control to generate, create barcode image in iPad applications. After random mating, the frequency of the A homozygote is p2, and the frequency of the heterozygote is 2pq. Thus, the frequency of the A allele, the frequency of its homozygote plus half the frequency of the heterozygotes, is f(A) f(AA) p Code 128C Maker In Java Using Barcode generator for Java Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 128 image in Java applications. Make Data Matrix 2d Barcode In ObjectiveC Using Barcode creator for iPhone Control to generate, create ECC200 image in iPhone applications. (1 2)f(Aa) (1 2)(2pq) pq p( p q) q 1) Generate GS1 DataBar In .NET Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create GS1 DataBar Expanded image in .NET framework applications. DataMatrix Scanner In VS .NET Using Barcode recognizer for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in VS .NET applications. p (remember, p
Thus, in a randomly mating population of sexually reproducing diploid individuals, the allelic frequency, p, does not change from generation to generation. Here, by observing the offspring of a randomly mating population, we have proven all three properties of the HardyWeinberg equilibrium. Generation Time
Although generation interval is commonly thought of as the average age of the parents when their offspring are born, the statistical concept of a generation is more complex. Demographers use formulas that relate generation time to the age of reproducing females, the reproductive level of each age group, and the probability of survival in each age group. Here, to avoid these complexities, we will use discrete generations, unless otherwise noted. That is, we will assume that all the individuals drawn in a sam Table 19.1 Proportions of Offspring in a Randomly Mating Population Segregating the A and a Alleles at the A locus: X f(AA), Y f(Aa), and Z f(aa) Offspring Mating AA AA AA Aa Aa Aa aa aa aa Sum AA Aa aa AA Aa aa AA Aa aa (X Proportion X2 XY XZ XY Y AA X2 (1/2)XY (1/2)XY (1/4)Y
(1/2)XY XZ (1/2)XY (1/2)Y 2 (1/2)YZ XZ (1/2)YZ (1/2)YZ Z2 (1/4)Y 2 (1/2)YZ
YZ XZ YZ Z2 Y Z) 2 (X [1/2]Y ) 2 2(X
[1/2]Y )(Z
[1/2]Y ) [1/2]Y ) 2 Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
19. Population Genetics: The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and Mating Systems
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001 HardyWeinberg Equilibrium
ple, for purposes of determining allelic and genotypic frequencies, are drawn from the same generation, and that, in resampling the population, the second sample represents the offspring of the rst generation.The discretegeneration model holds for organisms such as annual plants and fruit ies maintained under laboratory conditions, with no breeding among individuals of different generations. Generations that overlap, as in populations of human beings and many other organisms, usually are better described by somewhat more complex mathematical models.

