 Home
 Products
 Integration
 Tutorial
 Barcode FAQ
 Purchase
 Company
barcode reader vb.net source code Testing for Fit to HardyWeinberg Equilibrium in Software
Testing for Fit to HardyWeinberg Equilibrium QR Scanner In None Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications. QR Code Generation In None Using Barcode drawer for Software Control to generate, create QR Code image in Software applications. There are several ways to determine whether a given population conforms to the HardyWeinberg equilibrium at a particular locus. However, the question usually arises when there is just a single sample from a population, representing only one generation. Can the existence of the HardyWeinberg equilibrium be determined with just one sample The answer is that we can determine whether the three genotypes (AA, Aa, and aa) occur with the frequencies p2, 2pq, and q2. If they do, then the population is considered to be in HardyWeinberg proportions; if not, then the population is not considered to be in HardyWeinberg proportions. Decoding QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In None Using Barcode decoder for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. QR Code Creation In C#.NET Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create QRCode image in .NET framework applications. MN Blood Types
Painting QR Code 2d Barcode In VS .NET Using Barcode generator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in ASP.NET applications. Paint QR Code In VS .NET Using Barcode generator for .NET Control to generate, create QR image in .NET applications. To determine whether observed and expected allelic frequencies are the same, we can use the chisquare statistical test. In a chisquare test, we compare an observed number with an expected number. In this case, the observed values are the actual numbers of the three genotypes in the sample, and the expected values come from the prediction that the genotypes will occur in the p2, 2pq, and q2 proportions. An analysis for the Ohio MN bloodtype data is presented in table 19.2.The agreement between observed and expected numbers is very good, obvious even before the calculation of the chisquare value. Since the critical chisquare for one degree of freedom at the 0.05 level is 3.841 (see table 4.4), we nd that QR Code 2d Barcode Drawer In VB.NET Using Barcode creation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code JIS X 0510 image in .NET applications. Drawing Data Matrix ECC200 In None Using Barcode generation for Software Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in Software applications. the Ohio population does not deviate from HardyWeinberg proportions at the MN locus. Earlier (chapter 4), we used the chisquare statistic to test how well real data t an expected data set based on a ratio predicted before the test. For example, we tested the data against a 3:1 ratio in table 4.2. In that case, the number of degrees of freedom was simply the number of independent categories: the total number of categories minus one. Here, however, our expected ratio is derived from the data set itself. The values p2, 2pq, and q2 came from p and q, which were estimated from the data. In this case, we lose one additional degree of freedom for every independent value we estimate from the data. If we calculate p from a sample, we lose one degree of freedom. However, we do not lose a degree of freedom for estimating q, since q is no longer an independent variable: q 1 p. So in the previous case, we lose two degrees of freedom one for estimating p and one for independent categories. The general rule of thumb in using chisquare analysis to test for data t to HardyWeinberg proportions is that the number of degrees of freedom must equal the number of phenotypes minus the number of alleles (in this case, 3 2 1). The chisquare analysis in table 19.2 may seem paradoxical. Because the observed allelic frequencies calculated from the original genotypic data are used to calculate the expected genotypic frequencies, it may appear to some individuals that the analysis must, by its very nature, show that the population is in HardyWeinberg proportions. To demonstrate that this is not necessarily the case, a counterexample appears in table 19.3. We use data similar to the Ohio sample, except that the original number of heterozygotes has been distributed equally among the two homozygote classes. The same allelic frequencies are maintained, yet the genotypic distribution differs. The chisquare value of 200.00 for these data demonstrates that the population represented in table 19.3 is not in HardyWeinberg proportions. Thus, a chisquare analysis of t to the HardyWeinberg proportions by no means represents circular reasoning. Printing Code128 In None Using Barcode drawer for Software Control to generate, create Code128 image in Software applications. Drawing Barcode In None Using Barcode creator for Software Control to generate, create bar code image in Software applications. Table 19.2 ChiSquare Test of GoodnessofFit to the HardyWeinberg Proportions of a Sample of 200
Bar Code Encoder In None Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create barcode image in Software applications. Generate USS128 In None Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create EAN / UCC  13 image in Software applications. Persons for MN Blood Types for Which p
Leitcode Encoder In None Using Barcode drawer for Software Control to generate, create Leitcode image in Software applications. Print UCC128 In .NET Framework Using Barcode generator for Reporting Service Control to generate, create EAN / UCC  13 image in Reporting Service applications. MM Observed Numbers Expected Proportions Expected Numbers
Code 39 Extended Creator In None Using Barcode printer for Office Word Control to generate, create Code39 image in Office Word applications. Make GS1 DataBar14 In Java Using Barcode creation for Java Control to generate, create GS1 DataBar14 image in Java applications. 0.76 and q
Scan UPC  13 In None Using Barcode decoder for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. Bar Code Encoder In VS .NET Using Barcode creation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create barcode image in ASP.NET applications. MN 76 2pq (0.3648) 72.96 0.127 Code39 Encoder In Java Using Barcode encoder for BIRT reports Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 39 image in Eclipse BIRT applications. Creating USS Code 39 In .NET Framework Using Barcode generator for Reporting Service Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 39 image in Reporting Service applications. NN 10 q2 (0.0576) 11.52 0.201 Total 200 1.0 1.0 200.0 0.348
114 p2 (0.5776) 115.52 0.020 E )2/E
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
19. Population Genetics: The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and Mating Systems
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001 Nineteen
Population Genetics: The HardyWeinberg Equilibrium and Mating Systems
Table 19.3 ChiSquare Test of GoodnessofFit to the HardyWeinberg Proportions of a Second Sample of 200

