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barcode reader vb.net source code 0.1250 0.05) 0.0328 0.0313 0.05) 0.0328 0.0313 FI 0.3782 in Software
0.1250 0.1250 0.05) 0.0328 0.0313 0.05) 0.0328 0.0313 FI 0.3782 QR Code 2d Barcode Decoder In None Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications. QR Creator In None Using Barcode printer for Software Control to generate, create QR Code image in Software applications. This can be interpreted to mean that about 6.25% of individual I s loci are autozygous, or that there is a 6.25% chance of autozygosity at any one of I s loci. The inbreeding coef cient of the offspring of siblings ( g. 19.5) can also be calculated, assuming that A and B are not themselves inbred (FA and FB are zero), as FI 2(1 2)3 0.25 Quick Response Code Reader In None Using Barcode reader for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. QR Code 2d Barcode Creation In Visual C#.NET Using Barcode generator for .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in .NET framework applications. From path 3: (1/2) (1 From path 4: (1/2) Print QR Code In .NET Framework Using Barcode drawer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create QRCode image in ASP.NET applications. Printing QR Code In Visual Studio .NET Using Barcode printer for VS .NET Control to generate, create QRCode image in .NET framework applications. From path 5: (1/2) (1 From path 6: (1/2) Drawing QR Code 2d Barcode In Visual Basic .NET Using Barcode generator for VS .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in .NET applications. Data Matrix ECC200 Creation In None Using Barcode maker for Software Control to generate, create Data Matrix image in Software applications. Population Analysis
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Make 4State Customer Barcode In None Using Barcode drawer for Software Control to generate, create Intelligent Mail image in Software applications. Bar Code Encoder In Java Using Barcode maker for BIRT reports Control to generate, create bar code image in BIRT reports applications. It is also possible to de ne the inbreeding coef cient, F, of a population as the relative reduction in heterozygosity in the population due to inbreeding. In an individual, F is the probability of autozygosity; it represents an increase in homozygosity, which is therefore a decrease in heterozygosity. In a population, it also represents the reduction in heterozygosity. From the de nition, we can calculate the population F as follows: F (2pq H) 2pq UPCA Supplement 2 Encoder In Java Using Barcode encoder for Java Control to generate, create Universal Product Code version A image in Java applications. Drawing GS1 DataBar Stacked In Visual Studio .NET Using Barcode creator for .NET framework Control to generate, create GS1 DataBar Truncated image in .NET applications. I Pedigree Figure 19.5
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where H is the actual proportion of heterozygotes in a population, and 2pq is the expected proportion of het Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
19. Population Genetics: The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and Mating Systems
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001 Nonrandom Mating
erozygotes based on HardyWeinberg proportions. This equation reduces to F 1 H 2pq (19.2) This equation shows that when H 2pq, F is zero, meaning that there is no decrease in heterozygotes and therefore, apparently, no inbreeding. When there are no heterozygotes, F 1. This could be the case in a completely inbred population for example, a selffertilizing plant species. As an example of an intermediate case, take the sample of one hundred individuals segregating the A1 and A2 alleles at the A locus: A1A1, ftyfour; A1A2, thirtytwo; and A2A2, fourteen. In this example, p 0.7, q 0.3, and H 0.32. Since 2pq 0.42, H/2pq 0.32/0.42 0.76, and F 1 0.76, or 0.24. Thus, the inbreeding coef cient of this population is 0.24; there is a 24% reduction in heterozygotes, due presumably to inbreeding. E E F
I Pedigree
I Path diagram
Paths A B A B
I (1) Figure 19.6
I (2) I (3) I (4) I (5) I (6) Pedigree and path diagram of two generations of sib matings. The six paths involving the 0.05. The paths involve common ancestors in two generations. potential for autozygosity are shown. FA Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
19. Population Genetics: The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and Mating Systems
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001 Nineteen
Population Genetics: The HardyWeinberg Equilibrium and Mating Systems
S U M M A R Y
STUDY OBJECTIVE 1: To understand the concept of populationlevel genetic processes 553 554 In a large, randomly mating population of sexually reproducing diploid organisms, not subject to the in uences of mutation, migration, or selection, an equilibrium will be achieved for an autosomal locus with two alleles. STUDY OBJECTIVE 2: To learn the assumptions and naSTUDY OBJECTIVE 4: To analyze the process and consequences of nonrandom mating in diploid populations 560 565 Random mating is required for the HardyWeinberg equilibrium to hold. Deviations from random mating fall into two categories, depending on whether phenotypic resemblance or relatedness is involved in mate choice. Phenotypic resemblance is the basis for assortative and disassortative mating, in which individuals choose similar or dissimilar mates, respectively. Assortative mating causes increased homozygosity only among loci controlling the traits that in uence mate choice. There are no changes in allelic frequencies. Similarly, disassortative mating causes increased heterozygosity without changing allelic frequencies. Mating among relatives, or inbreeding, is represented by F, the inbreeding coef cient, which measures the probability of autozygosity (homozygosity by descent). It can be calculated from pedigrees by using the formula ture of the HardyWeinberg equilibrium and its extensions 554 557
The HardyWeinberg equilibrium predicts that (1) allelic frequencies ( p, q) will not change from generation to generation; (2) genotypes will occur according to the binomial distribution p2 f(AA), 2pq f(Aa), and q2 f(aa); and (3) if perturbed, equilibrium will reestablish itself in just one generation of random mating. STUDY OBJECTIVE 3: To test whether a population is in

