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21. What is the inbreeding coef cient of individual I in this pedigree FA 0.01; FB 0.02; FC 0.02.
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
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19. Population Genetics: The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium and Mating Systems
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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22. The following is the pedigree of an offspring produced by the mating of half siblings. Individuals A and C have inbreeding coef cients of 0.2; all others are zero. Convert the pedigree to a path diagram and determine the inbreeding coef cient of individual G.
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23. Given the population in Exercises and Problems problem 1, what is its inbreeding coef cient 24. In a sample of one hundred people, are fourteen MM, thirty-two MN, and fty-four NN individuals. Calculate the inbreeding coef cient. 25. If, in a population with two alleles at an autosomal locus, p 0.8, q 0.2, and the frequency of heterozygotes is 0.20, what is the inbreeding coef cient
C R I T I C A L
T H I N K I N G
Q U E S T I O N S
1. Prove that two generations are needed for the establishment of Hardy-Weinberg proportions when an autosomal locus with two alleles in a sexually reproducing species has frequencies of the two alleles that differ in the two sexes.
2. What might the rami cations to conservation efforts be of zoos maintaining captive breeding programs for rare and endangered species
Suggested Readings for chapter 19 are on page B-19.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
20. Population Genetics: Process that Change Allelic Frequencies
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
POPULATION GENETICS
Processes That Change Allelic Frequencies
STUDY OBJECTIVES
1. To develop ways to analyze population genetics problems 571 2. To analyze the effects of mutation, migration, and population size on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium 571 3. To study the ways in which natural selection results in organisms adapted to their environments 577
STUDY OUTLINE
Models for Population Genetics 571 Mutation 571 Mutational Equilibrium 571 Stability of Mutational Equilibrium 571 Migration 573 Small Population Size 574 Sampling Error 574 Simulation of Random Genetic Drift 575 Founder Effects and Bottlenecks 576 Natural Selection 577 How Natural Selection Acts 577 Selection Against the Recessive Homozygote 578 Selection-Mutation Equilibrium 581 Types of Selection Models 581 Summary 585 Solved Problems 585 Exercises and Problems 586 Critical Thinking Questions 587 Box 20.1 A General Computer Program to Simulate the Approach to Allelic Equilibrium Under Heterozygous Advantage 583
Natural selection works on the variation found in nature, shown here by different banding patterns in tree snails (Liguus fasciatus), found mainly in southern Florida. ( J. H. Robinson/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
20. Population Genetics: Process that Change Allelic Frequencies
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Mutation
e continue our discussion of the genetics of the evolutionary process.This chapter is devoted to a discussion of some of the effects of violating, or relaxing, the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium other than random mating, which we discussed in chapter 19. Here we consider the effects of mutation, migration, small population size, and natural selection on the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These processes usually change allelic frequencies.
M O D E L S F O R P O P U L AT I O N GENETICS
The steps we need to take to solve for equilibrium in population genetics models follow the same general pattern regardless of what model we are analyzing. We emphasize that these models were developed to help us understand the genetic changes taking place in a population. The models shed light on nonintuitive processes and help quantify intuitive processes. The steps in the models can be outlined as follows: 1. Set up an algebraic model. 2. Calculate allelic frequency in the next generation, qn 1. 3. Calculate change in allelic frequency between generations, q. ^ 4. Calculate the equilibrium condition, q (q-hat), at q 0. 5. Determine, when feasible, if the equilibrium is stable.
in which pn is the increment of a alleles added by forward mutation, and qn is the loss of a alleles due to back mutation. Equation 20.1 takes into account not only the rate of forward mutation, , but also pn, the frequency of A alleles available to mutate. Similarly, the loss of a to A alleles is the product of both the rate of back mutation, , and the frequency of the a allele, qn. Equation 20.1 completes the second modeling step, derivation of an expression for qn 1, allelic frequency after one generation of mutation pressure. The third step is to derive an expression for the change in allelic frequency between two generations.This change ( q) is simply the difference between the allelic frequency at generation n 1 and the allelic frequency at generation n. Thus, for the a allele q qn
(20.2)
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