Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition in Software

Print QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Software Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition

Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
Scanning QR Code 2d Barcode In None
Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications.
Printing QR In None
Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create QR Code JIS X 0510 image in Software applications.
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
QR Code 2d Barcode Reader In None
Using Barcode decoder for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications.
Painting Denso QR Bar Code In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode creation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in .NET applications.
20. Population Genetics: Process that Change Allelic Frequencies
QR Code ISO/IEC18004 Creator In VS .NET
Using Barcode encoder for ASP.NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in ASP.NET applications.
QR Code JIS X 0510 Printer In .NET Framework
Using Barcode creator for .NET framework Control to generate, create QR Code JIS X 0510 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
QR Code 2d Barcode Printer In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode drawer for VS .NET Control to generate, create QR Code 2d barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Code 3 Of 9 Generator In None
Using Barcode creation for Software Control to generate, create Code 39 Full ASCII image in Software applications.
Twenty
Code 128C Creator In None
Using Barcode creator for Software Control to generate, create Code-128 image in Software applications.
UCC - 12 Printer In None
Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create GTIN - 128 image in Software applications.
Population Genetics: Processes That Change Allelic Frequencies
Encoding Bar Code In None
Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create barcode image in Software applications.
Drawing DataMatrix In None
Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create Data Matrix ECC200 image in Software applications.
From one sample, we nd that the B allele is 0.10 in western Europe, taken as the resident or native population (qN ); 0.12 in eastern Europe, the conglomerate population (qc); and 0.21 in Mongols, the migrants (qM ). Substituting these values into equation 20.12 gives a value for m of 0.18.That is, given the stated assumptions, 18% of the alleles in the eastern European population were brought in by genetic mixture with Mongols. When a migrant group rst joins a native group, before genetic mixing (mating) takes place, the HardyWeinberg equilibrium of the conglomerate population is perturbed, even though both subgroups are themselves in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A decrease will occur in heterozygotes in the conglomerate population as compared to what we would predict from the allelic frequencies of that population (the average allelic frequencies of the two groups). This is a phenomenon of subdivision referred to as the Wahlund effect. The reason this happens is because the relative proportions of heterozygotes increase at intermediate allelic frequencies. As allelic frequencies rise above or fall below 0.5, the relative proportion of heterozygotes decreases. In a conglomerate population, the allelic frequencies will be intermediate between the values of the two subgroups because of averaging. This generally means the predicted proportion of heterozygotes will be higher than the actual average proportion of heterozygotes in the two subgroups. An example is worked out in table 20.1. Assume that the two subgroups each make up 50% of the conglomerate population. In subgroup 1, p 0.1 and q 0.9; in subgroup 2, p 0.9 and q 0.1. Each subgroup will have 18% heterozygotes. The average, (0.18 0.18)/2 0.18, is the proportion of heterozygotes actually in the population. However, the conglomerate allelic frequencies are p 0.5 and q 0.5, leading to the expectation that 50% of the population will be heterozygotes. Hence, the observed frequency of het-
Make USPS Intelligent Mail In None
Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create USPS OneCode Solution Barcode image in Software applications.
Encoding Barcode In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode maker for .NET framework Control to generate, create barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
erozygotes is lower than the expected frequency (i.e., the Wahlund effect). We should note that the same logic holds even if both populations have allelic frequencies above or below 0.5. Also, this effect happens when an observer samples what he or she thinks is a single population but is actually a population subdivided into several demes. When most population geneticists sample a population and nd a de ciency of heterozygotes, they rst think of inbreeding and then of subdivision, the Wahlund effect. (A further complication is that inbreeding leads to subdivision, and subdivision leads to inbreeding. Statistics have been developed to try to separate the effects of these two phenomena.) As soon as random mating occurs in a subdivided population, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is established in one generation. We refer to a population in which the individuals are mating at random as unstructured or panmictic.
Paint Code 3/9 In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode printer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 39 Full ASCII image in VS .NET applications.
Generating Barcode In Java
Using Barcode drawer for Java Control to generate, create barcode image in Java applications.
S M A L L P O P U L AT I O N S I Z E
Bar Code Maker In None
Using Barcode creation for Word Control to generate, create barcode image in Word applications.
Universal Product Code Version A Encoder In Java
Using Barcode creation for Java Control to generate, create UCC - 12 image in Java applications.
Another variable that can upset the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is small population size.The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes an in nitely large population because, as de ned, it is deterministic, not stochastic. That is, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium predicts exactly what the allelic and genotypic frequencies should be after one generation; it ignores variation due to sampling error. Obviously, every population of organisms on earth violates the HardyWeinberg assumption of in nite population size.
Matrix 2D Barcode Maker In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode encoder for .NET Control to generate, create 2D Barcode image in .NET applications.
Generating EAN128 In Visual C#
Using Barcode creation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create GTIN - 128 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Sampling Error
The zygotes of every generation are a sample of gametes from the parent generation. Sampling errors are the changes in allelic frequencies from one generation to the next that are due to inexact sampling of the alleles of the parent generation. Toss a coin one hundred times, and chances are, it will not land heads exactly fty times. However, as the number of coin tosses increases, the percentage of heads will approach 50%, a percentage reached with certainty only after an in nite number of tosses. The same applies to any sampling problem, from drawing cards from a deck to drawing gametes from a gene pool. If small population size is the only factor causing deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, it will cause the allelic frequencies of a population to uctuate from generation to generation in the process known as random genetic drift. In other words, an Aa heterozygote will sometimes produce several offspring that have only the A allele, or sometimes random mortality will kill a disproportionate number of aa homozygotes. In either case, the next generation may not have the same allelic frequencies as the
Copyright © OnBarcode.com . All rights reserved.