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Founder Effects and Bottlenecks
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Several well-known genetic phenomena are caused by populations starting at or proceeding through small num-
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bers. When a population is initiated by a small, and therefore genetically unrepresentative, sample of the parent population, the genetic drift observed in the subpopulation is referred to as a founder effect. A classic human example is the population founded on Pitcairn Island by several of the Bounty mutineers and some Polynesians. The unique combination of Caucasian and Polynesian traits that characterizes today s Pitcairn Island population resulted from the small number of founders for the population. Sometimes populations go through bottlenecks, periods of very small population size, with predictable ge-
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
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20. Population Genetics: Process that Change Allelic Frequencies
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Natural Selection
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netic results. After the bottleneck, the parents of the next generation have been reduced to a small number and may not be genetically representative of the original population. The eld mice on Muskeget Island, Massachusetts, have a white forehead blaze of hair not commonly found in nearby mainland populations. Presumably, the island population went through a bottleneck at the turn of the century, when cats on the island reduced the number of mice to near zero. The population was reestablished by a small group of mice that happened by chance to contain several animals with this forehead blaze.
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around by the wind. Thus, tness (usually assigned the letter W ) is relative to a given circumstance. In a given environment, the genotype that leaves the most offspring is usually assigned a tness of W 1, and a lethal genotype has a tness of W 0. Any other genotype has a tness value between zero and one. A number of factors can decrease this tness value, W, below one. A selection coef cient measures the sum of forces acting to prevent reproductive success. It is usually represented by the letter s or t and is de ned by the tness equation W and 1 s
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(20.13)
N AT U R A L S E L E C T I O N
Although mutation, migration, and random genetic drift all in uence allelic frequencies, they do not necessarily produce populations of individuals that are better adapted to their environments. Natural selection, however, tends to that end. The consequence of natural selection, Darwinian evolution, is considered in detail in the next chapter. We discuss here the algebra behind the process of natural selection. Arti cial selection, as practiced by animal and plant breeders, follows the same rules.
(20.14)
Thus, as the selection coef cient increases, tness decreases, and vice versa.
Components of Fitness
Natural selection can act at any stage of the life cycle of an organism. It usually acts in one of four ways. (1) The reproductive success of a genotype can be affected by prenatal, juvenile, or adult survival. Differential survival of genotypes is referred to as viability selection or zygotic selection. (2) A heterozygote can produce gametes with differential success when one of its alleles fertilizes more often than the other. This is termed gametic selection. A well-studied case is the t-allele (tailless) locus in house mice; the gametes of as many as 95% of the heterozygous males of the Tt genotype carry the t allele. (This phenomenon is also referred to as segregation distortion or meiotic drive.) Selection can also take place in two areas of the reproductive segment of an organism s life cycle. (3) Some genotypes may mate more often than others (have greater mating success), resulting in sexual selection. Sexual selection usually occurs when members of the same sex compete for mates or when females have some form of choice. Adaptations for ghting, such as antlers in male elk, or displaying, such as the peacock s tail, are the results of sexual selection. (4) Finally, some genotypes may be more fertile than other genotypes, resulting in fecundity selection. The particular variable of the life cycle that selection acts upon is termed a component of tness.
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