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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
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20. Population Genetics: Process that Change Allelic Frequencies
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Genotypes AA Before selection Fitness (W ) After selection 1 p2(1 p
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and s 0.15, what are the equilibrium allelic frequencies 17. If a locus has alleles A1 and A2, what is the equilibrium frequency of A1 if both homozygotes are lethal 18. The following data were collected from a population of Drosophila segregating sepia (s) and wild-type (s ) eye colors. One sample was taken when the eggs were deposited, and another was taken later among adults. Reconstruct the mode of selection.
s+s+ Egg Adult 25 30 s+s 50 60 ss
Table 20.7 Data from Dobzhansky s Work
Inversion Elevation of Sample 6,800 ft 4,600 ft 3,000 ft 800 ft
Note: ST standard; AR
ST 26 32 41 46
AR 44 37 35 25
CH 16 19 14 16
Chiricahua
Others 14 12 10 13
Arrowhead; CH
25 10
19. The data in table 20.7 come from T. Dobzhansky s work with chromosomal inversions in Drosophila pseudoobscura. They represent four samples from various altitudes in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. What would you say about, and what would you do in the lab to determine, the tnesses of the inversions What factors could cause the changes in tness 20. In a particular population with two alleles at a locus, the frequency of AA individuals 0.25, Aa 0.5, and aa 0.25. If the AA genotype tness 1, Aa 0.8, and aa 0.6, what will the frequencies of A and a be in the next generation Assume mutations do not occur.
21. Calculate the frequency of the recessive b allele in a population one generation after selection if in the original population q f(b) 0.7 and the relative tness of bb homozygotes is 0.4. 22. A type of dwar sm in dogs is caused by a recessive allele. The mutation rate from the normal to the mutant allele has been estimated at 5 10 5, and the tness of the dwarf is 0.2 when compared with normal individuals. Calculate the equilibrium frequency of the dwarf allele. 23. A recessive allele (q 0.5) was initially neutral, but suddenly the environment changed and the recessive homozygote became lethal. What is q one generation after selection begins What is the expected frequency of the recessive allele two generations after selection
C R I T I C A L
T H I N K I N G
Q U E S T I O N S
1. If the selection model of heterozygous disadvantage leads to the elimination of the rarer allele, why would such systems (e.g., the Rh blood system) still exist.
2. A scientist studied the distribution of electrophoretic genotypes in a sample of an insect species and found a deficiency of heterozygotes. How could this come about
Suggested Readings for chapter 20 are on page B-20.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
21. Evolution and Speciation
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
EVOLUTION AND SPECIATION
STUDY OBJECTIVES
1. To analyze the mechanisms of evolution and speciation 589 2. To investigate the mechanisms of the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations, both selective and neutral 596 3. To discuss sociobiology, the evolution of social behavior 603
STUDY OUTLINE
Darwinian Evolution 589 Evolution and Speciation 589 Mechanisms of Cladogenesis 592 Phyletic Gradualism Versus Punctuated Equilibrium Genetic Variation 596 Maintaining Polymorphisms 596 Maintaining Many Polymorphisms 598 Which Hypothesis Is Correct 599 Grand Patterns of Variation 600 Sociobiology 603 Altruism 603 Kin Selection and Inclusive Fitness 605 Summary 607 Solved Problems 607 Exercises and Problems 608 Critical Thinking Questions 609 Box 21.1 Attacks on Darwinism 590 Box 21.2 Mimicry 604
The cactus ground- nch (Geospiza scandens) from Santa Cruz Island, Gal pagos. ( Frans Lanting/
Photo Researchers, Inc.)
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
21. Evolution and Speciation
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Evolution and Speciation
opulations change, or evolve, through natural selection and the other forces that perturb the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The merger of population genetics theory with the classical Darwinian view of evolution is known as neoDarwinism, or the new synthesis. In the two previous chapters, we laid the theoretical groundwork for an understanding of the process of evolution in natural populations. In this chapter, we concern ourselves with longterm evolution and speciation.
DARWINIAN EVOLUTION
Charles Darwin ( g. 21.1) was a British naturalist who published his theory of evolution in 1859 in a book entitled The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. This book provided overwhelming support for evolution as well as a mechanism for the process. Darwin had been greatly in uenced by the writings of the Reverend Thomas Malthus, who is best known for his theory that populations increase exponentially, whereas their food supplies increase arithmetically. Malthus, who proposed his theory in An Essay on the Principle of Population in 1798, was referring speci cally to human populations and was trying to encourage people to reduce their birthrate
rather than let their offspring starve to death. Malthus s writings impressed upon Darwin the realization that under limited resources the usual circumstance in nature not all organisms survive. In nature, organisms compete for the resources needed to survive. Darwin sailed aboard the HMS Beagle, a ship that circled the world from 1831 to 1836 with the primary purpose of charting the coast of South America. During his travels on the Beagle, Darwin amassed great quantities of observations (especially on South America and the Gal pagos Islands) that led him to suggest a theory. Darwin proposed that organisms become adapted to their environment by the process of natural selection. In outline, the process works according to the following principles: 1. Variation is a characteristic of virtually every group of animals and plants. Darwin saw variation as an inherent property among individuals of all populations. 2. Every group of organisms overproduces offspring. Most populations maintain a relatively constant density over time. Thus, every parent, on average, just replaces itself. Therefore, most of the offspring the individuals of a population produce will die before they reproduce. Hence, in every group of organisms, there is an overabundance of young. 3. Those that do survive and reproduce will pass on their genes in greater proportion. This step is the cornerstone and the best-known part of Darwin s theory. Among all the organisms competing for a limited array of resources, only the organisms best able to obtain and utilize these resources survive (survival of the ttest). If the favorable characteristics of these individuals are inherited, these traits pass on to the next generation.These organisms then have the greatest reproductive success (box 21.1). Thus, over time, if advantageous mutations arise, or if the environment changes, the characteristics of a population should change through the process of natural selection (directional or disruptive selection). A particularly welladapted population in a stable environment may maintain its numbers through the forces of stabilizing selection (see g. 20.9). Nonrandom mating, genetic drift, and migration may also play a role in population differentiation.
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