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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
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21. Evolution and Speciation
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Evolution and Speciation
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The three general mechanisms of speciation. In allopatric speciation, reproductive isolation evolves after the population has been geographically divided. In parapatric speciation, reproductive isolation evolves when a segment of the population enters a new niche. In sympatric speciation, reproductive isolation evolves while the incipient group is still in the vicinity of the parent population.
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An example of incipient sympatric speciation has been seen recently in host races of the apple maggot y (Rhagoletis pomonella) in North America ( g. 21.4). This y was found originally only on hawthorn plants. However, in the nineteenth century, it spread as a pest to newly introduced apple trees. In fact, races are now known on pear and cherry trees and on rose bushes. These races have developed genetic, behavioral, and ecological differences from the original hawthorn-dwelling parent. Evolutionary biologists view this as an opportunity to observe sympatric speciation as it occurs. Another form of sympatric speciation occurs when cytogenetic changes take place that result in instantaneous speciation. These cytogenetic changes include polyploidy and translocations. For example, if polyploid offspring cannot produce fertile hybrids with individuals from a parent population, then the polyploid is reproductively isolated. This mechanism is much more common in plants because they can exist vegetatively despite odd ploidy and they usually do not have chromosomal sex-determining mechanisms, which are especially vulnerable to ploidy problems (see chapter 8). The end result of cladogenesis is the divergence of a homogeneous population into two or more species. One of the classic examples of cladogenesis appears in
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Figure 21.4 The apple maggot y, Rhagoletis pomonella. This species has exhibited host range expansion since the nineteenth century from hawthorn to apple, cherry, and roses. Host races are presumably the initial step in sympatric speciation. Magni cation 10 . (Source: Jeffrey L. Feder and Guy L.
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Bush, Zoology Department, Michigan State University.)
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
21. Evolution and Speciation
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Twenty-One
Evolution and Speciation
the ground finches of the Gal pagos Islands. These birds are very well studied not only because they present a striking case of speciation, but also because Darwin studied them and was strongly in uenced by them in his views. Figure 21.5 is a map of the Gal pagos Islands, and gure 21.6 is a diagram of the species of Darwin s nches. An original ock of nches somehow reached the Gal pagos Archipelago from South America, 700 miles away, and with time spread to the various islands of the Gal pagos Archipelago. Given the limited ability of the birds to get from island to island, allopatric speciation took place. On each island, the nch population evolved reproductive isolating mechanisms while evolving to ll certain niches not already lled on the islands. For example, in South America, no nches have evolved to be like woodpeckers because many woodpecker species already live there. But the Gal pagos Islands, being isolated from South America, have what is called a depauperate fauna, a fauna lacking many species found on the mainland. The islands lacked woodpeckers, and a very useful food resource for birds insects beneath the bark of trees was going unused. Finches that could
make use of this resource would be at an advantage and would thus be favored by natural selection. On one island, a nch did evolve to use this food resource. The woodpecker nch acts like a woodpecker by inserting cactus needles into holes in dead trees to extract insects. Darwin wrote: Seeing this gradation and diversity of structure in one small, intimately related group of birds, one might really fancy that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modi ed for different ends.
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