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Oogonium Figure 3.29 Oogenesis; 2n
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4. Maternal chromosomes are red; paternal chromosomes are blue.
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
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3. Mitosis and Meiosis
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Life Cycles
of diploid sporophytes. In lower plants, the gametophyte has an independent existence; in angiosperms, this generation is radically reduced. For example, in corn ( g. 3.30), an angiosperm, the mature corn plant is the sporophyte. The male owers produce microspores by meiosis. After mitosis, three cells exist in each spore, a structure that we call a pollen grain, the male gametophyte. In female owers, meiosis produces megaspores. Mitosis within a megaspore produces an embryo sac of seven cells with eight nuclei. This is the female gametophyte. A sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell. The two polar nuclei of the embryo sac are fertilized by a second sperm cell, producing triploid (3n) nutritive endosperm tissue. The sporophyte grows from the diploid fertilized egg. Many fungi and protista are haploid. Fertilization produces a diploid stage, which almost immediately undergoes meiosis to form haploid cells.These cells, in turn, increase in number by mitosis. We will analyze organisms such as Neurospora, the pink bread mold, in more detail later (see chapter 6).
Much of our knowledge of genetics derives from the study of speci c organisms with unique properties. Mendel found pea plants useful because he could control matings carefully, their generation time was only a year, he could easily grow them in his garden, and they had the discrete traits that he was seeking. Our interest in human beings is obvious. However, we are members of a very dif cult species to study experimentally. We have a long generation time and a small number of offspring from matings that we cannot tailor for research purposes. The fruit y, Drosophila melanogaster, is one of the organisms geneticists have studied most extensively. Fruit ies have a short generation time (twelve to fourteen days), which means that many matings can be carried out in a reasonable amount of time. In addition, they do exceptionally well in the laboratory, they have many easily observable mutants, and in several organs they have giant banded chromosomes of great interest to cytogeneticists.
Endosperm (3n): 2 polar + 1 sperm nuclei Embryo (2n): egg + 1 sperm nuclei Kernel
Tube nucleus Sperm cells
Flower
Flower
Polar nuclei Egg cell Mature megagametophyte (eight nuclei)
Mature microgametophyte (three cells) Flower
Sporophyte
Meiosis
Flower
Microspores
Megaspores Three degenerate cells One functional cell
Pollen (four per meiosis) Figure 3.30
Life cycle of the corn plant.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
3. Mitosis and Meiosis
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Three
Mitosis and Meiosis
Note that species used in food production tend to be intermediate in their life cycles. That is, many crop plants, such as peas and corn, have only one generation interval per year under normal circumstances. (We use the term generation interval here in the broadest sense, as the time it takes to complete an entire life cycle; see also chapter 19.) Crop plants are easier to work with from a genetic standpoint than people, but much more dif cult than, say, Drosophila or bacteria (table 3.4). Because of their relatively long generation interval, crop plants are limited in their utility for studying basic genetic concepts or applying genetic technology to agriculture. As you make your way through this book and through other readings on genetics, and as you come across studies involving new organisms, ask yourself the question, What are the properties of this organism that make it ideal for this type of research
ing this era, intensive effort was devoted to studying the relationships between genes and chromosomes. The major portion of the rst section of this book is devoted to classical studies of linkage and mapping. Linkage deals with the association of genes to each other and to speci c chromosomes. Mapping deals with the sequence of genes on a chromosome and the distances between genes on the same chromosome. This is basic information for a study of the structure and function of genes. Here we introduce a new term for the gene. The term locus (plural: loci), meaning place in Latin, refers to the location of a gene on the chromosome.
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