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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
21. Evolution and Speciation
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Sociobiology
Table 21.5 Evolutionary Rates (k) as 10
Substitutions Per Amino Acid Site Per Year for Various Proteins
Protein Fibrinopeptide Pancreatic ribonuclease Lysozyme Hemoglobin alpha Myoglobin Insulin Cytochrome c Histone H4 k 8.3 2.1 2.0 1.2 0.89 0.44 0.3 0.01
pared with old world monkeys. If the clocks change speed in different lineages, at different times, and for different parts of the genome, there will be errors in interpreting lineages and errors in using averages to understand the general patterns of change. At this point, it is probably safe to say that while natural selection acts to create organisms that are adapted to their environments (see box 21.2 on mimicry), many nucleotide and amino acid changes may not have measurable effects on the tness of the organism, and hence their frequencies may be determined by the stochastic processes of mutation and genetic drift. Adaptation is by natural selection, but neutral variation most certainly also occurs in organisms.
Source: From M. Kimura, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution, Cambridge University Press, 1983. Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press.
SOCIOBIOLOGY
We close this chapter by looking at a level of evolution only recently addressed. In 1975, E. O. Wilson published a mammoth tome entitled Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. This book has been at the center of major controversies that have spread to the elds of sociology, psychology, anthropology, ethology, and political science. The basic premise of the book is that social behavior is under genetic control. Although Wilson s book contains twenty-six chapters concerned with the animal kingdom, controversies have arisen because of the one chapter that applies the theory to human beings.
four bases in the third position of the codon.The remaining amino acids belong to mixed families; the rst two positions and the purine or pyrimidine nature of the third position in their codons is important. Hence, the wobble (third) position of the codon is under the least constraint and should build up the most neutral or near-neutral mutations. In addition, analysis of changes in the rst and second positions indicates that more drastic change takes place by mutation of the second rather than the rst position of the codon. Thus, we predict that evolutionary distance, as measured by base substitutions, should be greatest for the third codon position and least for the second position. This turns out to be generally true (table 21.6). It should be clear that a major problem facing those who study evolutionary clocks is how to calibrate them. Are average changes uniform throughout lineages Do clocks speed up, slow down, or show other unpredictable changes through time There is evidence, for example, that both the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA clocks have slowed down in the hominid lineage as com-
Altruism
V. C.Wynne-Edwards published a book in 1962 entitled Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior. In it, he suggested that animals regulate their own population density through altruistic behavior. For example, under crowded conditions, many birds cease reproducing.The interpretation of this phenomenon was that these birds were being altruistic: Their failure to breed was for the ultimate good of the species. (Altruism means risking loss of tness in an act that could improve the tness of another individual.) Wynne-Edwards suggested a mechanism called group
Edward O.Wilson (1929 ).
(Courtesy of Dr. Edward O. Wilson.
Table 21.6 Evolutionary Distance of Codons,
Measured in Base Substitutions Per Nucleotide Site
Codon Site 2 Beta globin, human being vs. mouse Beta globin, chicken vs. rabbit Rabbit, alpha vs. beta globin 0.13 0.19 0.44 1 0.17 0.30 0.54 3 0.34 0.64 0.90
Photo by Pat Hill/OMNI Publications International, Ltd.)
Source: From M. Kimura, The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution, Cambridge University Press, 1983. Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
21. Evolution and Speciation
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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