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imicry is a phenomenon whereby an individual of one species gains an advantage by resembling an individual of a different species. There are at least two types of mimicry. In M lerian mimicry, named after F. M ller, several groups of organisms gain an advantage by looking like one another.This mimicry occurs among organisms in which all the mimetic species are offensive and obnoxious. The classic example is the general similarity among bees, wasps, and hornets. In Batesian mimicry, named after H. W. Bates, a vulnerable organism (mimic) gains a selective advantage by looking like a dangerous or distasteful organism (model). The classic example of Batesian mimicry was, until 1991, the monarch (Danaus plexippus) and viceroy (Limenitis archippus) butter ies ( g. 1). Although the viceroy is smaller and, on close examination, looks different from the monarch, the resemblance is striking at rst glance. Monarch butter ies feed on milkweed plants, obtaining noxious chemicals called cardiac glycosides, which the monarchs store in their bodies. When a bird tries to eat a monarch, it becomes sick and regurgitates what it has eaten. Thereafter, the bird will not only avoid eating monarchs, but it will also avoid eating any butter ies that look anything like monarchs. Previously it was believed that the mimetic viceroy butter y gained a selective advantage by looking like the monarch and fooling bird predators into thinking that the viceroy was bad to eat. However, D.
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Ritland and L. Brower demonstrated a previously unrealized fact: The viceroys taste as bad as the monarchs to birds. This fact changes the mimicry of these two species from Batesian to M llerian mimicry. Examples of Batesian mimicry do occur in numerous butter y species. For example, in West Africa, Pseudacraea species mimic species of the genus Bematistes ( g. 2). These species are primarily black and white or black and orange, and in some the sexes differ, each having a different mimic. Upwards of twenty species can be involved in these mimicry complexes in one area. Both forms of mimicry depend on the selective pressure generated by predation. Certain requirements must be met for each system to work properly. Batesian mimicry has the following requirements: 1. The model species must be conspicuous and inedible or dangerous. 2. Both model and mimic species must occur in the same area, with the model being very abundant. If the model is rare, predators do not have suf cient opportunity to learn that its pattern is associated with a bad taste. In fact, the reverse can happen; the model can
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be at a selective disadvantage if it is rare because the predators will learn from the mimic that the pattern is associated with something good to eat. 3. The mimic should be very similar to the model in the morphological characteristics predators perceive but not necessarily similar in other traits. The mimic is not evolving to be the model, only to look like it. M llerian mimicry requires that all the species be similar in appearance and distinctly colored. They can, however, be equally numerous. And, as the British geneticist P. M. Sheppard pointed out, the resemblance among M llerian mimics need not be as good as between the mimic and model of a Batesian pair because M llerian mimics are not trying to deceive a predator, only to remind the predator of the relationship. Although there have been some critics of mimicry theory, especially critics of the way in which the system could evolve, the general model put forth by population geneticist and mathematician R. A. Fisher is generally accepted. According to Fisher, any new mutation that gave a mimic any slight advantage would be selected for. As time proceeded, other loci that might favorably modify the expression of mimetic genes would also be selected for in order to increase the similarity of mimic and model. This mechanism surmounts the criticism that a single mutation could not produce a mimic that so closely resembled its model.
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selection: groups that had altruistic behavior would have a survival advantage over groups that did not. In 1966, G.Williams, in his book Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought, refuted the altruistic view with the charge that individuals that performed altruistic acts would be selected against. In other words, organisms not performing altruistic acts would have a higher degree of tness.
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Williams held that apparent altruism had to be interpreted on the basis of bene ts accruing to the individual performing the altruistic act. After his book, the idea of doing something for the good of the species became pass . How, then, can apparent altruism be accounted for How can we explain why ground squirrels appear to put themselves at risk to predators by giving alarm calls, and why female workers in ant, wasp, and bee colonies
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