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IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
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21. Evolution and Speciation
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Evolution and Speciation
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do these acts. Therefore, tness is higher for sel sh individuals. Altruistic acts, however, are expected if the bene ciary of the acts shares genes in common with the
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benefactor performing the acts. Generally, altruism can be expected among relatives, following the rules of kin selection.
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DARWINIAN EVOLUTION
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A N D
P R O B L E M S *
1. Outline the Darwinian mechanism of the process of evolution. What is meant by neo-Darwinism
EVOLUTION AND SPECIATION
2. Population geneticist Hampton Carson has de ned a population ush as a period of reduced selection during population increase. Why should there be reduced selection during a ush 3. Describe how the processes of allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation could take place. 4. Can information on evolutionary rates gained from molecular techniques shed light on the punctuated equilibrium-phyletic gradualism controversy What additional data are needed to decide this controversy 5. What is meant by constraint in the molecular evolution of DNA and proteins 6. Recently, a vial of bull semen was stolen from an arti cial insemination facility. Your friend is about to undergo arti cial insemination and is concerned she may give birth to a Minotaur, or a cow-human hybrid. Provide two explanations for why she should not worry about this possibility. 7. In Drosophila, females in populations A and B produce an average of 250 offspring each. When the two populations are crossed, AB females produce only about 100 offspring each. Are populations A and B in the process of becoming different species 8. A few plants of species Q (2n 14) suddenly double their chromosomes (2n 28) and immediately become a new species, R. Why are QR hybrids sterile 9. One of the arguments creationists use to refute evolution is the presence of gaps in the fossil record. How can you explain the gaps from an evolutionary standpoint
GENETIC VARIATION
for fast and slow migration in an electric eld: FF, forty-three, FS, fty-four, and SS, three. Is selection acting What would you look for in data to determine whether frequency-dependent selection, heterozygote advantage, or transient polymorphism is at work 11. What mechanisms permit the maintenance of genetic variability in natural populations Give examples where possible. 12. Discuss the neutral gene hypothesis. What are its alternatives What data are needed to distinguish among these views 13. Koehn showed that differently functioning alleles of an esterase system in sh correlated with water temperature. What sorts of selection can you imagine that could affect the same type of alleles in mammals, which are homeothermic (warm-blooded) and hence maintain a relatively constant internal temperature 14. P. Niemal and J. Tuomi have suggested that the irregular leaf outlines in some plant species are a form of mimicry. What would the leaves be mimicking What form of mimicry might this be 15. From gure 21.10, what is K (the average number of amino acid substitutions per site) between human beings and chickens between dogs and human beings Do all three possible comparisons support known evolutionary relationships 16. How does the acceptance of the neutral mutation theory change our basic view of neo-Darwinism 17. In a given population, the frequencies of AA, Aa, and aa genotypes are 0.36, 0.48, and 0.16, respectively. If the assigned tnesses are 1.5 p, 1.0, and 1.5 q, what will the genotypic frequencies be after one generation of selection 18. If the rate of amino acid substitution per site per year is 2 10 9, and the average number of amino acid substitutions per site is 0.2, how long has it been since the two species diverged 19. Scientists have examined one thousand amino acids in the proteins of human beings and chimps and have found a difference in twenty-three. Calculate the average number of amino acid substitutions per site.
10. The following electrophoretic data are from a sample of one hundred field mice for their salivary amylase-1 genotypes. The two alleles are F and S,
*Answers to selected Exercises and Problems are on page A-24.
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