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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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Back Matter
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App. A: Brief Ans. to Selected Exercises, Problems, and Critical Thinking Ques.
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Appendix A Brief Answers to Selected Exercises, Problems, and Critical Thinking Questions
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both strands yield RNAs with one or more AUGs.The RNA from the top strand has AUGs in both directions, but in each case the AUG is followed by a termination signal, UAA, or UAG. This RNA could not make a protein. The bottom strand produces an RNA with only one AUG. Since transcription and protein synthesis both proceed 5 3 , the left end of the bottom strand must be 3 . 19. If transcription of the genes is rho-dependent, the RNAs made at 40 C will be longer than those made at 30 C. Since the rho cannot function at the high temperature, RNA polymerase will read past the termination region. If transcription is rho-independent, a rho mutant will have no effect on transcription, and hence, the size of the RNAs. 21. The double helix must unwind in order for transcription to occur. A-T pairs, because they have only two H-bonds, are more easily disrupted than G-C pairs. 23. Removing one base too many or too few would result in a shift in the reading frame during translation (see chapter 11), thus radically altering the protein product. 25.
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33. Enhancers [E] bind activator proteins that also bind proteins of the polymerase at the promoter [P]. In some eukaryotic genes, there are many enhancers, allowing numerous levels of control and forcing enhancers further and further upstream. For activators bound to enhancers to bind polymerase proteins, the DNA must loop around. P E P E Critical Thinking Question: 1. Given that a gene controls the production of a protein, there are both realistic and theoretical limits to the size of a gene. From what we know about the functioning of the centromere, a gene would have to occupy no more than the length of a chromosomal arm. However, given that human chromosomes must contain about fty thousand genes, it is unlikely that any gene is that large. We also know that many functioning proteins are made up of subunits, each controlled by its own gene. Thus, large proteins tend to be conglomerates of smaller ones rather than large functional units. Finally, the larger the protein the more time it takes to transcribe and translate it, making very large size inef cient. As we mentioned before, the average protein is about 300 to 500 amino acids; with introns, and control elements, the gene for an average protein could be quite large. The largest known gene is the human dystrophin gene that codes for a cytoskeletal protein. It is 2,300,000 bases long, has 79 exons, and takes 16 hours to be transcribed. 11 Gene Expression: Translation
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27. Group I introns are self-splicing introns that require a guaninecontaining nucleotide for splicing. Group II introns are similar but do not require an external nucleotide for splicing. Group I and II introns are released as linear and lariat-shaped molecules, respectively. 29. Spliceosomes are composed of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (see g. 10.37). 31.
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1. The messenger RNA is 5 -AUGUUACCGGGAAAAUAG-3 ; the anticodons are 3 -UAC-5 , 3 -AAU-5 , 3 -GGC-5 , 3 -CCU-5 , 3 -UUU-5 ; the amino acids are methionine, leucine, proline, glycine, lysine (see the gure below). 3. See gure 11.16. Use the messenger RNA of problem 1 and be sure to include EF-Tu and EF-Ts. 5. There are approximately twenty aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in an E. coli cell, one for each amino acid. Recognition signals can occur at any point on a given transfer RNA, although the anticodon gures prominently in most. 7. See gure 11.7. 9. Three; see gure 11.29. 11. 5 -UAA-3 5 -UUA-3 (leucine). The consequence is the failure to terminate the particular protein leading to continued chain elongation to the next nonsense codon or to the end of the messenger RNA. The result is probably a nonfunctioning enzyme or protein.
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There are three introns, so we expect three single-stranded DNA loops. The coding regions (exons) form RNA-DNA hybrids and appear thicker.
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