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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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I. Genetics and the Scientific Method
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1. Introduction
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Why Fruit Flies and Colon Bacteria
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was a revolution of the working class over the wealthy aristocracy.) Supported by Stalin, and then Krushchev, Lysenko gained inordinate power in his country. All visible genetic research in the former Soviet Union was forced to conform to Lysenko s Lamarckian views. People who disagreed with him were forced out of power; Vavilov was arrested in 1940 and died in prison in 1943. It was not until Nikita Krushchev lost power in 1964 that Lysenkoism fell out of favor. Within months, Lysenko s failed pseudoscience was repudiated and Soviet genetics got back on track. For thirty years, Soviet geneticists were forced into fruitless endeavors, forced out of genetics altogether, or punished for their heterodox views. Superb scientists died in prison while crop improvement programs failed, all because the Soviet dictators favored Lysenkoism. The message of this affair is clear: Politicians can support research that agrees with their political agenda and punish scientists
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Tro m Denisovich Lysenko (1898 1976) shows branched wheat to collective farmers in the former Soviet Union. ( SOVFOTO.)
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doing research that disagrees with this agenda, but politicians cannot change the truth of the laws of nature. Science, to be effective, must be
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done in a climate of open inquiry and free expression of ideas. The scienti c method cannot be subverted by political bullies.
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ments in scienti c journals (as cited at the end of the book) and read about the work yourself. If you still don t believe a conclusion, you can repeat the work in question either to verify or challenge it. This is in keeping with the nature of the scienti c method. As mentioned, the results of experimental studies are usually published in scienti c journals. Examples of journals that many geneticists read include Genetics, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Science, Nature, Evolution, Cell, American Journal of Human Genetics, Journal of Molecular Biology, and hundreds more.The reported research usually undergoes a process called peer review in which other scientists review an article before it is published to ensure its accuracy and its relevance. Scienti c articles usually include a detailed justi cation for the work, an outline of the methods that allows other scientists to repeat the work, the results, a discussion of the signi cance of the results, and citations of prior work relevant to the present study. At the end of this book, we cite journal articles describing research that has contributed to each chapter.
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(In chapter 2, we reprint part of Gregor Mendel s work, and in chapter 9, we reprint a research article by J. Watson and F. Crick in its entirety.) We also cite secondary sources, that is, journals and books that publish syntheses of the literature rather than original contributions. These include Scienti c American, Annual Review of Biochemistry, Annual Review of Genetics, American Scientist, and others. You are encouraged to look at all of these sources in your efforts both to improve your grasp of genetics and to understand how science progresses.
WHY FRUIT FLIES AND COLON BACTERIA
As you read this book, you will see that certain organisms are used repeatedly in genetic experiments. If the goal of science is to uncover generalities about the living world, why do geneticists persist in using the same few organisms
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
I. Genetics and the Scientific Method
1. Introduction
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
One
Introduction
Figure 1.3 Adult female fruit y, Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations of eye color, bristle type and number, and wing characteristics are easily visible when they occur.
in their work The answer is probably obvious: the organisms used for any particular type of study have certain attributes that make them desirable model organisms for that research. In the early stages of genetic research, at the turn of the century, no one had yet developed techniques to do genetic work with microorganisms or mammalian cells. At that time, the organism of preference was the fruit y, Drosophila melanogaster, which developmental biologists had used ( g. 1.3). It has a relatively short generation time of about two weeks, survives and breeds well in the lab, has very large chromosomes in some of its cells, and has many aspects of its phenotype (appearance) genetically controlled. For example, it is easy to see the external results of mutations of genes that control eye color, bristle number and type, and wing characteristics such as shape or vein pattern in the fruit y. At the middle of this century, when geneticists developed techniques for genetic work on bacteria, the common colon bacterium, Escherichia coli, became a favorite organism of genetic researchers ( g. 1.4). Because it had a generation time of only twenty minutes and only a small amount of genetic material, many research groups used it in their experiments. Still later, bacterial viruses, called bacteriophages, became very popular in genetics labs. The viruses are constructed of only a few types of protein molecules and a very small amount of genetic material. Some can replicate a hundredfold in an hour. Our point is not to list the major organisms geneticists use, but to suggest why they use some so commonly.
Figure 1.4 Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli bacteria. These rod-shaped bacilli are magni ed 18,000x.
( K. G. Murti/Visuals Unlimited, Inc.)
Comparative studies are usually done to determine which generalities discovered in the elite genetic organisms are really scienti cally universal.
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