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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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Back Matter
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App. A: Brief Ans. to Selected Exercises, Problems, and Critical Thinking Ques.
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Appendix A Brief Answers to Selected Exercises, Problems, and Critical Thinking Questions
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21. 0.575. We can use the formula in equation 20.15, which is a simpli ed form of the sum of homozygotes one-half the proportion of heterozygotes of the b allele. qn
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q 1 0.4, s
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sq2 sq2 1 W 0.6. 0.575
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(rare-male mating advantage in Drosophila); transient polymorphism (industrial melanism in moths during an increase or decrease in industrialization); life-stage selection, which often happens when comparing egg, larval, pupal, and adult mortalities in Drosophila; differential selection in heterogeneous environments, common in some land snails; and neutrality. 13. Presumably, in mammals, selection could involve types of substrates acted upon by electrophoretic variants; functioning at different pHs and ionic strengths in various cellular compartments; resistance to enzyme inhibitors; interaction with other proteins and membrane components; and others. 15. Use the formula K ln(1 d/n), in which d is the number of amino acid differences and n is the total number of amino acid sites. Thus: human being dog: K human being chicken: K and dog chicken: K ln(1 ln(1 1/8) ln(1 3/8) 0.133 0.470 0.470 3/8)
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Since the relative tness, W qn
0.7 1
(0.6)(0.49) (0.6)(0.49)
0.406 0.706
23. 0.33, 0.25. Since the tness is zero, s 1, and we can use equation 20.17: q1 q0/(q0 1) 0.5/1.5 0.33. For the second generation, we substitute the rst generation numbers: q2 0.33/1.33 0.248. Critical Thinking Question: 1. There could be several reasons why these systems are in existence. First, they could be in selection-mutation equilibrium. However, that would not account for the high frequencies of both alleles in human populations in the Rh system. Second, the polymorphism could be relatively new, somehow maintaining both alleles as the human population increased in recent times with natural selection not having enough time to eliminate one of the alleles. Third, although the Rh blood system could follow the heterozygous disadvantage model, selection could also be acting in other ways that might maintain the polymorphism. That is, aside from Rh incompatibility eliminating heterozygotes, other genotypic combinations could be favored under other circumstances. Finally, although one or the other allele is being eliminated in any one population due to heterozygous disadvantage, the constant mixing of human populations could be reintroducing the rarer allele. 21 Evolution and Speciation
These values place human beings and dogs very close and both equally far from chickens, which is consistent with the known evolutionary relationships. 17. 0.33 AA, 0.49 Aa, 0.18 aa. The mean tness of the population after selection is 0.5 2pq 0.98 (table 21.2). The new frequency of a genotype is its original frequency times its tness, all divided by the mean tness of the population. Or: f(AA) (0.36)(1.5 0.98 0.48/0.98 p) [23/1,000]) ln(0.0977) 0.023 0.6) 0.33
f(Aa) f(aa) 19. 0.023. K K ln(1 ln(1
0.49 0.18
(0.16)(1.5
0.4)/0.98
1. Neo-Darwinism is the application of population genetics to Darwinian evolution. Darwinian evolution works as natural selection favors the most t organisms in competition among the overproduced young of any species. 3. Each process lets reproductive isolating mechanisms evolve while some barrier to breeding arises (see g. 21.3). 5. Constraint refers to the limitations on changes that can take place. Some changes result in nonfunctional proteins and enzymes and thus cannot be in a successful lineage. For example, many base changes that lead to new amino acids in enzyme active sites disrupt enzymatic activity. If these mutations take place, they are eliminated by natural selection. 7. Yes. Two distinct species should not yield fertile progeny. We see a great reduction in the numbers of offspring from hybrids, indicating that hybrid inviability is one isolating mechanism operating. 9. Punctuated equilibrium proposes that species remain unchanged for long periods of time and that major changes occur only periodically. If species A existed for ten million years and suddenly (geologically speaking) changed dramatically to species X and Y, there would be few fossils because of the relatively short time in which intermediate forms were present. Another argument is, barring an incredibly detailed and complete sequence (of which there are almost none), there will always be gaps in the fossil record. 11. Genetic variability can be maintained by heterozygote advantage (e.g., sickle-cell anemia in people); frequency-dependent selection
21. The third. For many amino acids, the third position can be any of the four bases. In addition, wobble allows for some variation here as well. Changing the rst or second base almost always produces a new amino acid. 23. Eight rst cousins, on average, carry the complete genome of an individual. Therefore, from an evolutionary point of view, an individual and his or her eight cousins include the same alleles. Critical Thinking Question: 1. Given that the gene for peppering is recessive and that one year equals one generation, the moths should be following a selection model in which natural selection acts against the recessive homozygote. In that case, we have already developed a selection model for this in chapter 20. Equation 20.15 relates the new allelic frequency to the old, given a particular selection coef cient: qn
sq)/(1
sq2)
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