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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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Glossary
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GLOSSARY
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acentric fragment A chromosomal piece without a centromere. acrocentric chromosome A chromosome whose centromere lies very near one end. acron The anterior end of the arthropod embryo from which eyes and antennae develop. activation energy See free energy of activation ( G ). activator A eukaryotic speci c transcription factor that binds to an enhancer, often far upstream of a promoter. active site The part of an enzyme where the actual enzymatic function is performed. adaptive mutation See directed mutation. adaptive value See tness. additive model A mechanism of quantitative inheritance in which alleles at different loci either add an amount to the phenotype or add nothing. adenine See purines. adjacent-1 segregation A separation of centromeres during meiosis in a reciprocal translocation heterozygote so that unbalanced zygotes are produced. adjacent-2 segregation Separation of centromeres during meiosis in a translocation heterozygote so that homologous centromeres are pulled to the same pole. A DNA The form of DNA with high water content; it has tilted base pairs and more base pairs per turn than does B DNA. affected Individuals in a pedigree that exhibit the speci c phenotype under study. allele Alternative form of a gene. allelic exclusion A process whereby only one immunoglobulin light chain and one heavy chain gene are transcribed in any one cell; the other genes are repressed. allopatric speciation Speciation in which the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms occurs during the physical separation of the populations. allopolyploidy Polyploidy produced by the hybridization of two species. allosteric protein A protein whose shape is changed when it binds a particular molecule. In the new shape, the protein s ability to react to a second molecule is altered. allotype Mutant of a nonvariant part of an immunoglobulin gene that follows the rules of simple Mendelian inheritance. allozygosity Homozygosity in which the two alleles are alike but unrelated. See autozygosity. allozymes Forms of an enzyme, controlled by alleles of the same locus, that differ in electrophoretic mobility. See isozymes. alternate segregation A separation of centromeres during meiosis in a reciprocal translocation heterozygote so that balanced gametes are produced. alternative splicing Various ways of splicing out introns in eukaryotic premessenger RNAs so that one gene produces several different messenger RNA and protein products. altruism A form of behavior in which an individual risks lowering its tness for the bene t of another. Alu family A dispersed, intermediately repetitive DNA sequence found in the human genome about 300,000 times. The sequence is about 300 bp long. The name Alu comes from the restriction endonuclease that cleaves it. aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases Enzymes that attach amino acids to their proper transfer RNAs. amphidiploid An organism produced by hybridization of two species, followed by somatic doubling. It is an allotetraploid that appears to be a normal diploid. anagenesis The evolutionary process whereby one species evolves into another without any splitting of the phylogenetic tree. See cladogenesis. anaphase The stage of mitosis and meiosis in which sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes are separated by spindle bers. anaphase A The stage of anaphase in which chromatids are separated by the shortening of kinetochore microtubules. anaphase B The stage of anaphase in which chromatids are separated by the general elongation of the spindle. anaphase-promoting complex (APC) Protein complex that breaks down cyclin B and promotes anaphase among its various roles in controlling the cell cycle. (Also called the cyclosome.) aneuploids Individuals or cells exhibiting aneuploidy. aneuploidy The condition of a cell or of an organism that has additions or deletions of whole chromosomes. angiosperms Plants whose seeds are enclosed within an ovary. Flowering plants. antibody A protein produced by a B lymphocyte that protects the organism against antigens. anticoding strand The DNA strand that forms the template for both the transcribed messenger RNA and the coding strand. anticodon The three-base sequence on transfer RNA complementary to a codon on messenger RNA. antigen A foreign substance capable of triggering an immune response in an organism. antimutator mutations Mutations of DNA polymerase that decrease the overall mutation rate of a cell or of an organism. anti-oncogene A gene that represses malignant growth and whose absence results in malignancy (e.g., retinoblastoma). antiparallel strands Strands, as in DNA, that run in opposite directions with respect to their 3 and 5 ends. antisense RNA RNA product of mic (mRNA-interfering complementary RNA) genes that regulates another gene by base pairing with, and thus blocking, its messenger RNA. antisense strand See anticoding strand. anti-sigma factor A protein that interferes with the action of a sigma factor. antiterminator protein A protein that, when bound at its normal attachment sites, lets RNA polymerase read through normal terminator sequences (e.g., the N- and Q-gene products of phage ). AP endonucleases Endonucleases that initiate excision repair at apurinic and apyrimidinic sites on DNA. apoptosis Programmed cell death. archaea Highly specialized, bacterialike organisms that make up the third kingdom of life on earth along with the bacteria and the eukaryotes. Identi ed by Carl Woese in 1977 based on ribosomal RNA sequences. Most are thermophilic, halophilic, or methanogenic. ascospores Haploid spores found in the asci of Ascomycete fungi. ascus The sac in Ascomycete fungi that holds the ascospores. A (aminoacyl) site The site on the ribosome occupied by an aminoacyl-tRNA just prior to peptide bond formation. assignment test A test that determines whether a locus is on a speci c chromosome by observing the concordance of the locus and the speci c chromosome in hybrid cell lines. assortative mating The mating of individuals with similar phenotypes.
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