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aster Con guration at the centrosome with microtubules radiating out in all directions. ataxia-telangiectasia A disease in human beings caused by a defect in X-ray-induced repair mechanisms. attenuator region A control region at the promoter end of repressible amino acid operons that exerts transcriptional control based on the translation of a small leader peptide gene. attenuator stem See terminator stem. autogamy Nuclear reorganization in a single Paramecium cell similar to the changes that occur during conjugation. autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) Eukaryotic site of the initiation of DNA replication consisting of an 11 base-pair consensus sequence and several other sequences covering 100 200 base pairs. autopolyploidy Polyploidy in which all the chromosomes come from the same species. autoradiography A technique in which radioactive molecules make their locations known by exposing photographic plates. autosomal set A combination of nonsex chromosomes consisting of one from each homologous pair in a diploid species. autosomes The nonsex chromosomes. autotrophs Organisms that can utilize carbon dioxide as a carbon source. autozygosity Homozygosity in which the two alleles are identical by descent (i.e., they are copies of an ancestral gene). auxotrophs Organisms that have speci c nutritional requirements. bacillus A rod-shaped bacterium. backcross The cross of an individual with one of its parents or with an organism with the same genotype as a parent. back mutation The process that causes reversion. A change in a nucleotide pair in a mutant gene that restores the original sequence and hence the original phenotype. bacterial arti cial chromosomes (BACs) Arti cial chromosomes used for sequencing that are derived from bacterial fertility factors (F plasmids). bacterial lawn A continuous cover of bacteria on the surface of a growth medium. bacteriophages Bacterial viruses. Balbiani rings The larger polytene chromosomal puffs. Generally synonymous with puffs. See chromosome puffs. Barr body Heterochromatic body (X chromosome) found in the nuclei of normal female mammals but absent in the nuclei of normal males. basal bodies Microtubule organizing center for cilia and agella, composed of centrioles. base excision repair The DNA excision repair mechanism that replaces a nucleotide lacking its base with a complete nucleotide. Glycosylases or the environment create the AP (apurinic and apyrimidinic) nucleotides.
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base ipping A process whereby enzymes gain access to bases within the DNA double helix by rst ipping the bases out of the interior to the outside. basic/helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper A motif of proteins that bind DNA that consists of a series of basic amino acids followed by a helix-loop-helix domain and then a leucine zipper. See helix-turn-helix motif; leucine zipper. Batesian mimicry Form of mimicry in which an innocuous model gains protection by resembling a noxious or dangerous host. B DNA The right-handed, double-helical form of DNA described by Watson and Crick. -galactosidase The enzyme that splits lactose into glucose and galactose (coded by a gene in the lac operon). -galactoside acetyltransferase An enzyme that is involved in lactose metabolism and encoded by a gene in the lac operon. -galactoside permease An enzyme involved in concentrating lactose in the cell (coded by a gene in the 1ac operon). binary ssion Simple cell division in single-celled organisms. binomial expansion The terms generated when a binomial expression is raised to a particular power. binomial theorem The theorem that gives the terms of the expansion of a binomial expression raised to a particular power. biochemical genetics The study of the relationships between genes and enzymes, speci cally the role of genes in controlling the steps in biochemical pathways. bioinformatics The science of storing, retrieving, and analyzing genomic data. biolistic A method (biological ballistic) of transfecting cells by bombarding them with microprojectiles coated with DNA. biological species concept The idea that organisms are classi ed in the same species if they are potentially capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. bivalents Structures, formed during prophase of meiosis I, consisting of the synapsed homologous chromosomes. Equivalent to a tetrad of chromatids. blastoderm The outer layer of cells in an insect embryo after cleavage but before gastrulation. A syncitial blastoderm gives way to a cellular blastoderm when cell walls form. blunt-end ligation The ligating or attaching of blunt-ended pieces of DNA by, for example, T4 DNA ligase. Used in creating hybrid vectors. bottleneck A brief reduction in the size of a population, which usually leads to random genetic drift. bouquet stage A stage during zygonema in which chromosome ends, attached to the nuclear membrane, come to lie near each other.
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branch migration The process in which a crossover point between two duplexes slides along the duplexes. breakage and reunion The general mode by which recombination occurs. DNA duplexes are broken and reunited in a crosswise fashion according to the Holliday model. breakage-fusion-bridge cycle Damage that a dicentric chromosome goes through during each cell cycle. buoyant density of DNA A measure of the density or size of DNA determined by the equilibrium point reached by DNA after density gradient centrifugation. calculus of the genes Apparent calculation by the genes to determine when a particular altruistic behavior is bene cial to inclusive tness and hence worth doing. cancer An informal term for a diverse class of diseases marked by abnormal cell proliferation. cancer-family syndromes Pedigree patterns in which unusually large numbers of blood relatives develop certain kinds of cancers. cap A methylated guanosine added to the 5 end of eukaryotic messenger RNA. capsid The protein shell of a virus. capsomere Protein clusters making up discrete subunits of a viral protein shell. carcinoma Tumor arising from epithelial tissue (e.g., glands, breasts, skin, linings of the urogenital and respiratory systems). cassette mechanism The mechanism by which homothallic yeast cells alternate mating types. The mechanism involves two silent transposons (cassettes) and a region where these cassettes can be expressed (cassette player). catabolite activator protein (CAP) A protein that, when bound with cyclic AMP, can attach to sites on sugar-metabolizing operons to enhance transcription of these operons. catabolite repression Repression of certain sugar-metabolizing operons in favor of glucose utilization when glucose is present in the environment of the cell. cDNA See complementary DNA. cell cycle The cycle of cell growth, replication of the genetic material, and nuclear and cytoplasmic division. cell-free system A mixture of cytoplasmic components from cells, lacking nucleic acids and membranes. Used for in vitro protein synthesis and other purposes. cellular immunity Immunity controlled by killer and helper T cells, which recognize infected body cells and either cause the infected cells to destroy internal invaders or destroy the infected cells directly. centimorgan A chromosome-mapping unit. One centimorgan equals 1% recombinant offspring.
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