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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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central dogma The original postulate of the way that information can be transferred between DNA, RNA, and protein, barring any transfer originating in protein. centric fragment A piece of chromosome containing a centromere. centrioles Cylindrical organelles, found in eukaryotes (except in higher plants), that reside in the centrosome. Also called basal bodies when they organize agella or cilia. centromere Constrictions in eukaryotic chromosomes on which the kinetochore lies. Also, the DNA sequence within the constriction that is responsible for appropriate function. centromeric ssion Creation of two chromosomes from one by splitting at the centromere. centrosome The spindle-microtubule organizing center in eukaryotes except for those, such as fungi, that use spindle pole bodies to organize the spindles. chaperone See molecular chaperone. Chargaff s rule Chargaff s observation that in the base composition of DNA, the quantity of adenine equals the quantity of thymine, and the quantity of guanine equals the quantity of cytosine (equal purine and pyrimidine content). Charon phages Phage lambda derivatives used as vehicles in DNA cloning. checkpoint Used to describe points in the cell cycle that can be stopped if certain conditions are not met. chemiluminescent techniques Techniques in which various molecules are made visible when exposed to ultraviolet or laser light if the molecules have a uorescent tag. chiasmata X-shaped con gurations seen in tetrads during the later stages of prophase I of meiosis. They represent physical crossovers (singular: chiasma). chimeras Individuals made up of two or more cell lines in which the cells originated in different zygotes. See mosaics. chimeric plasmid Hybrid, or genetically mixed, plasmid used in DNA cloning. chi site Sequence of DNA at which the RecBCD protein cleaves one of the DNA strands during recombination. chi-square distribution The sampling distribution of the chi-square statistic. A family of curves whose shapes depend on degrees of freedom. chloroplast The organelle that carries out photosynthesis and starch grain formation. chromatids The subunits of a chromosome prior to anaphase of meiosis or mitosis. At anaphase of meiosis II or mitosis, when the sister chromatids separate, each chromatid becomes a chromosome. chromatin The nucleoprotein material of the eukaryotic chromosome. chromatin assembly factors Proteins involved in the construction of nucleosomes.
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chromatin remodeling The change in the structure or positioning of nucleosomes, usually to allow transcription. chromatosome The core nucleosome plus the Hl protein, a unit that includes approximately 168 base pairs of DNA. chromomeres Dark regions of chromatin condensation in eukaryotic chromosomes at meiosis, mitosis, or endomitosis. chromosomal painting A variant of the technique known as uorescent in situ hybridization. Fluorescent dyes, attached to numerous nucleotide probes, give each human chromosome a different uorescent signature. chromosomal theory of inheritance The theory that chromosomes are linear sequences of genes. chromosome The form of the genetic material in viruses and cells. A circle of DNA in most prokaryotes; a DNA or an RNA molecule in viruses; a linear nucleoprotein complex in eukaryotes. chromosome jumping A technique for isolating clones from a genomic library that are not contiguous but skip a region between known points on the chromosome. This is usually done to bypass regions that are dif cult or impossible to walk through or regions known not to be of interest. chromosome puffs Diffuse, uncoiled regions in polytene chromosomes where transcription is actively taking place. chromosome walking A technique for studying segments of DNA, larger than can be individually cloned, by using overlapping cloned DNA. cis Meaning on the near side of ; refers to geometric con gurations of atoms or mutants on the same chromosome. cis-dominant Mutants (e.g., of an operator) that control the functioning of genes on the same piece of DNA. cis-trans complementation test A mating test to determine whether two mutants on opposite chromosomes complement each other; a test for allelism. cistron Term Benzer coined for the smallest genetic unit that exhibits the cis-trans position effect; synonymous with gene. cladogenesis The evolutionary process whereby one species splits into two or more species. See anagenesis. classical linkage map A chromosomal map, measured in centimorgans, based on genetic crosses to locate the relative distances between genes and their relative locations on chromosomes. clinal selection Selection that changes gradually along a geographic gradient. clonal evolution theory The theory that cancer develops from sequential changes (mutations) in the genome of a single cell. clone A group of cells arising from a single ancestor.
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coccus A spherical bacterium. coding strand The DNA strand with the same sequence as the transcribed messenger RNA (given U in RNA and T in DNA). Compare with anticoding strand. codominance The relationship of alleles in a heterozygote that shows the individual expression of each allele in the phenotype. codon preference The idea that for amino acids with several codons, one or a few are preferred and are used disproportionately. They would correspond with abundant transfer RNAs. codons The sequences of three RNA or DNA nucleotides that specify either an amino acid or termination of translation. coef cient of coincidence The number of observed double crossovers, divided by the number expected based on the independent occurrence of crossovers. coef cient of relationship, r The proportion of alleles held in common by two related individuals. cohesin Proteinaceous complex that holds sister chromatids together until anaphase of mitosis. cointegrate A fusion of two elements. An intermediate structure in transposition. colicinogenic factors See col plasmids. col plasmids Plasmids that produce antibiotics (colicinogens) that the host uses to kill other strains of bacteria. combinatorial control Transcriptional control in eukaryotes, which involves a large number of polypeptides, many of which recognize speci c DNA sequences. common ancestry The shared genetic inheritance of two individuals who are blood relatives. When two parents have a common ancestor, their offspring will be inbred. compensasome The multisubunit dosage compensation complex in Drosophila with attendant RNAs. competence factor A surface protein that binds extracellular DNA and enables the bacterial cell to be transformed. complementarity The correspondence of DNA bases in the double helix so that adenine in one strand is opposite thymine in the other strand and cytosine in one strand is opposite guanine in the other. This relationship explains Chargaff s rule. complementary DNA (cDNA) DNA synthesized by reverse transcriptase using RNA as a template. complementation The production of the wild-type phenotype by a cell or an organism that contains two mutant genes. If complementation occurs, the mutants are almost certainly nonallelic. complementation group Cistron (determined by the cis-trans complementation test). complete medium A culture medium that is enriched to contain all of the growth requirements of a strain of organisms.
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