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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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hammerhead ribozyme A catalytic RNA, shaped like a hammerhead, capable of splitting other RNA molecules with appropriate complementary sequences. haplodiploidy The sex-determining mechanism found in some insect groups among which males are haploid and females are diploid. haploid The state of having one copy of each chromosome per nucleus or cell. HAT medium A selection medium for hybrid cell lines; contains hypoxanthine, aminopterin, and thymidine. HPRT+ TK+ cell lines can survive in this medium. heat shock proteins Proteins that appear in a cell after the cell has been subjected to elevated temperatures. helicase A protein that unwinds DNA, usually at replicating Y-junctions. helix-turn-helix motif Con guration found in DNA-binding proteins consisting of a recognition helix and a stabilizing helix. separated by a short turn. hemizygous The condition of loci present in only one copy in a diploid organism, such as loci on the X chromosome of the heterogametic sex of a diploid species. heritability A measure of the degree to which the variance in the distribution of a phenotype is due to genetic causes. In the broad sense, it is measured by the total genetic variance divided by the total phenotypic variance. In the narrow sense, it is measured by the genetic variance due to additive genes divided by the total phenotypic variance. hermaphrodite An individual with both male and female genitalia. heterochromatin Chromatin that remains tightly coiled (and darkly staining) throughout the cell cycle. heteroduplex DNA See hybrid DNA. heterogametic The sex with heteromorphic sex chromosomes; during meiosis, it produces different kinds of gametes in accordance with these sex chromosomes. heterogeneous nuclear mRNA (hnRNA) The original RNA transcripts found in eukaryotic nuclei before posttranscriptional modi cations. heterokaryon A cell that contains two or more nuclei from different origins. heteromorphic chromosome pair Members of a homologous pair of chromosomes that are not morphologically identical (e.g., the sex chromosomes). heteroplasmy The existence within an organism of genetic heterogeneity within the populations of mitochondria or chloroplasts. heterothallic A botanical term used for organisms in which the two sexes reside in different individuals. heterotrophs Organisms that require an organic form of carbon as a carbon source.
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heterozygote A diploid or polyploid with different alleles at a particular locus. heterozygote advantage A selection model in which heterozygotes have the highest tness. heterozygous DNA See hybrid DNA. Hfr High frequency of recombination. A strain of bacteria that has incorporated an F factor into its chromosome and can then transfer the chromosome during conjugation. histone acetyl transferases (HATs) Proteins that remodel chromatin by acetylating histones. histones Arginine- and lysine-rich basic proteins making up a substantial portion of eukaryotic nucleoprotein. hnRNA See heterogeneous nuclear mRNA. Hogness box See TATA box. holandric trait Trait controlled by a locus found only on the Y chromosome. Involves father-to-son transmission. Holliday junction A junction point between two cross-linked DNA double helices. It is an intermediate stage in DNA recombination. holoenzyme The complete enzyme, including all subunits. Often used in reference to RNA and DNA polymerases. homeo box A consensus sequence of about 180 base pairs discovered in homeotic genes in Drosophila. Also found in other developmentally important genes from yeast to human beings. homeo domain The sixty amino acid polypeptide translated from the homeo box. homeotic gene Gene that controls the developmental fate of a cell type; mutations of the homeotic gene cause one cell type to follow the developmental pathway of another cell type. homogametic The sex with homomorphic sex chromosomes; it produces only one kind of gamete in regard to the sex chromosomes. homologous chromosomes Members of a pair of essentially identical chromosomes that synapse during meiosis. homologous recombination Breakage and reunion between homologous lengths of DNA mediated by RecA and RecBCD. homomorphic chromosome pairs Morphologically identical members of a homologous pair of chromosomes. homoplasmy The existence within an organism of only one type of plastid; usually referring to the genetic identity of mitochondria or chloroplasts. homothallic A botanical term used for groups whose individuals are not of different sexes. homozygote A diploid or a polyploid with identical alleles at a locus. humoral immunity Immunity due to antibodies in the serum and lymph. H-Y antigen The histocompatibility Y-antigen, a protein found on the cell surfaces of male mammals.
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hybrid Offspring of unlike parents. hybrid DNA DNA whose two strands have different origins. hybridoma A cell resulting from the fusion of a spleen cell and a multiple myeloma cell. These cells can be maintained inde nitely in cell culture, in which they produce monoclonal antibodies. hybrid plasmid A plasmid that contains an inserted piece of foreign DNA. hybrid vector See hybrid vehicle. hybrid vehicle A plasmid or phage containing an inserted piece of foreign DNA. hybrid zone Geographical region in which previously isolated populations that have evolved differences come into contact and form hybrids. hyperplasia Excessive cell growth that does not involve pathological changes to the cells. hypervariable loci Loci with many alleles; especially those whose variation is due to variable numbers of tandem repeats. hypostatic gene A gene whose expression is masked by an epistatic gene. identity by descent The state of two alleles when they are identical copies of the same ancestral allele (autozygous). idiogram A photograph or diagram of the chromosomes of a cell arranged in an orderly fashion. See karyotype. idiotypic variation Variation in the variable parts of immunoglobulin genes. idling reaction The production of guanosine tetraphosphate (3 -ppGpp-5 ) by the stringent factor when a ribosome encounters an uncharged transfer RNA in the A site. immunity The ability of an organism to resist infection. immunoglobulins (Igs) Speci c proteins produced by derivatives of B lymphocytes that protect an organism from antigens. imprinting See molecular imprinting. imprinting center (IC) A region responsible for the control of imprinting. The imprinting mark is almost certainly DNA methylation, which is able to turn off gene transcription. inbreeding The mating of genetically related individuals. inbreeding coef cient, F The probability of autozygosity. inbreeding depression A depression of vigor or yield due to inbreeding. incestuous A mating between blood relatives who are more closely related than the law of the land allows. inclusive tness The expansion of the concept of the tness of a genotype to include bene ts accrued to relatives of an individual since relatives share parts of their genomes. An apparently altruistic act toward a relative may thus enhance the tness of the individual performing the act.
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