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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition in Software
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition Decoding QR Code In None Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications. QR Code JIS X 0510 Drawer In None Using Barcode creator for Software Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in Software applications. II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
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EAN 128 Encoder In None Using Barcode maker for Software Control to generate, create USS128 image in Software applications. Bar Code Generation In None Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create bar code image in Software applications. a normal son (3/4)(1/2) 3/8 a normal daughter (3/4)(1/2) 3/8 an albino son (1/4)(1/2) 1/8 an albino daughter (1/4)(1/2) 1/8 Thus: P 5! (3/8)2(3/8)2(1/8)1(1/8)0 2!2!1!0! 30(3/8)4(1/8)1 30(3)4/(8)5 2,430/32,768 0.074 2/5 Standard Encoder In None Using Barcode generation for Software Control to generate, create Code 2 of 5 image in Software applications. Bar Code Scanner In None Using Barcode decoder for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. of data and reduces them to one or two meaningful values. We examine further some of these terms and concepts in the chapter on quantitative inheritance (chapter 18). ANSI/AIM Code 39 Drawer In Visual C#.NET Using Barcode generator for .NET Control to generate, create Code 3 of 9 image in Visual Studio .NET applications. EAN13 Recognizer In None Using Barcode reader for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications. Hypothesis Testing
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In one of Mendel s experiments, F1 heterozygous pea plants, all tall, were selffertilized. In the next generation (F2), he recorded 787 tall offspring and 277 dwarf offspring for a ratio of 2.84:1. Mendel saw this as a 3:1 ratio, which supported his proposed rule of inheritance. In fact, is 787:277 roundable to a 3:1 ratio From a brief discussion of probability, we expect some deviation from an exact 3:1 ratio (798:266), but how much of a deviation is acceptable Would 786:278 still support Mendel s rule Would 785:279 support it Would 709:355 (a 2:1 ratio) or 532:532 (a 1:1 ratio) Where do we draw the line It is at this point that the discipline of statistics provides help. We can never speak with certainty about stochastic events. For example, take Mendel s cross. Although a 3:1 ratio is expected on the basis of Mendel s hypothesis, chance could mean that the data yield a 1:1 ratio (532:532), yet the mechanism could be the one that Mendel suggested. In other words, we could ip an honest coin and get ten heads in a row. Conversely, Mendel could have gotten exactly a 3:1 ratio (798:266) in his F2 generation, yet his hypothesis of segregation could have been wrong. The point is that any time we deal with probabilistic events there is some chance that the data will lead us to support a bad hypothesis or reject a good one. Statistics quanti es these chances. We cannot say with certainty that a 2.84:1 ratio represents a 3:1 ratio; we can say, however, that we have a certain degree of con dence in the ratio. Statistics helps us ascertain these con dence limits. Statistics is a branch of probability theory that helps the experimental geneticist in three ways. First, part of statistics deals with experimental design. A bit of thought applied before an experiment may help the investigator design the experiment in the most ef cient way. Although he did not know statistics, Mendel s experimental design was very good. The second way in which statistics is helpful is in summarizing data. Familiar terms such as mean and standard deviation are part of the body of descriptive statistics that takes large masses Similarly, we can calculate the probability of getting all tall (81/256 0.32), two tall and two dwarf (54/256 0.21), one tall and three dwarf (12/256 0.05), and all dwarf (1/256 0.004) in this rst set of four. Table 4.1 shows this distribution, as well as the distributions for samples of eight and forty progeny. Figure 4.1 shows these distributions in graph form. As sample sizes increase (from four to eight to forty in g. 4.1), the sampling distribution takes on the shape of a smooth curve with a peak at the true ratio of 3:1 (75% tall progeny) that is, there is a high probability of getting very close to the true ratio. However, there is some chance the ratio will be fairly far off, and a very small part of the time our ratio will be very far off. It is important to see that any ratio could arise in a given experiment even though the true ratio is 3:1. At what point do we decide that an experimental result is not indicative of a 3:1 ratio Statisticians have agreed on a convention. When all the frequencies are plotted, as in gure 4.1, we can treat the area under the curve as one unit, and we can draw lines to mark 95% of this area ( g. 4.2). Any ratios in

