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partial dominance See incomplete dominance. Pascal s triangle A triangular array of numbers made up of the coef cients of the binomial expansion. path diagram A modi ed pedigree showing only the direct line of descent from common ancestors. pedigree A representation of the ancestry of an individual or family; a family tree. penetrance The normal appearance of genetically controlled traits in the phenotype. peptidyl transferase The enzymatic center responsible for peptide bond formation during translation at the ribosome. pericentric inversion A chromosomal inversion that includes the centromere. permissive temperature A temperature at which temperature-sensitive mutants are normal. PEST hypothesis Degradation of a protein in less than two hours is signaled by a region within the protein rich in proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S), or threonine (T). petite mutations Mutations of yeast that produce small colonies, like those grown under anaerobic conditions. phages See bacteriophages. phenocopy A phenotype that is not genetically controlled but looks like a genetically controlled phenotype. phenotype The observable attributes of an organism. pheromone A chemical signal, analogous to a hormone, that passes information between individuals. phosphodiester bond A diester bond linking two nucleotides together (between phosphoric acid and sugars) to form the nucleotide polymers DNA and RNA. photocrosslinking A technique used to determine which moieties (proteins, DNA) are in close proximity during a particular process. photoreactivation The process whereby dimerized pyrimidines (usually thymines) in DNA are restored by an enzyme (deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase) that requires light energy. phyletic evolution See anagenesis. phyletic gradualism The process of gradual evolutionary change over time. phylogenetic tree A diagram showing evolutionary lineages of organisms. physical map Chromosomal map in which distances are in physical units of base pairs. These maps can be of microsatellite markers or of sequence-tagged sites. pili ( mbriae) Hairlike projections on the surface of bacteria; Latin for hair. plaques Clear areas on a bacterial lawn caused by cell lysis due to viral attack. plasmid An autonomous, self-replicating genetic particle, usually of double-stranded DNA.
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plastid A chloroplast prior to the development of chlorophyll. pleiotropy The phenomenon whereby a single mutant affects several apparently unrelated aspects of the phenotype. point centromere The type of centromere, such as that found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that has de ned sequences large enough to accommodate one spindle microtubule. point mutations Small mutations that consist of a replacement, addition, or deletion of one or a few bases. polar bodies The small cells that are the by-products of meiosis in female animals. One functional ovum and as many as three polar bodies result from meiosis of each primary oocyte. polarity Meaning directionality and referring either to an effect seen in only one direction from a point of origin or to the fact that linear entities (such as a single strand of DNA) have ends that differ from each other. polar mutant An organism with a mutation, usually within an operon, that prevents the expression of genes distal to itself. pollen grain The male gametophyte in higher plants. poly-A tail A sequence of adenosine nucleotides added to the 3 end of eukaryotic messenger RNAs. polycistronic Referring to prokaryotic messenger RNAs that contain several genes within the same messenger RNA transcript. polygenic inheritance See quantitative inheritance. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A method to amplify DNA segments rapidly in temperature-controlled cycles of denaturation, primer binding, and replication. polymerase cycling The process by which a DNA polymerase III enzyme completes an Okazaki fragment, releases it, and begins synthesis of the next Okazaki fragment. polymerized Formed into a complex compound by linking together smaller elements. polynucleotide phosphorylase An enzyme that can polymerize diphosphate nucleotides without the need for a primer. The function of this enzyme in vivo is probably in its reverse role as an RNA exonuclease. polyploids Organisms with greater than two chromosome sets. polyribosome See polysome. polysome The con guration of several ribosomes simultaneously translating the same messenger RNA. Shortened form of the term polyribosome. polytene chromosome Large chromosome, seen, for example, in Drosophila salivary glands, consisting of many chromatids formed by rounds of endomitosis. Synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs during the process.
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population A group of organisms of the same species relatively isolated from other groups of the same species. See deme. position effect An alteration of phenotype caused by a change in the relative arrangement of the genetic material. positive interference When the occurrence of one crossover reduces the probability that a second will occur in the same region. postreplicative repair A DNA repair process initiated when DNA polymerase bypasses a damaged area. posttranscriptional modi cations Changes in eukaryotic messenger RNA made after transcription has been completed. These changes include additions of caps and tails and removal of introns. preemptor stem A con guration of leader transcript messenger RNA that does not terminate transcription in the attenuatorcontrolled amino acid operons. pre-initiation complex (PIC) The form of the RNA polymerase II enzyme with general transcription factors bound equivalent to the E. coli holoenzyme. Phosphorylation of the enzyme then allows transcription to begin. Pribnow box Consensus sequence of TATAAT in prokaryotic promoters centered at the position 10. primary oocytes The cells that undergo meiosis in female animals. primary spermatocytes The cells that undergo meiosis in male animals. primary structure The sequence of polymerized amino acids in a protein. primary transcript The product of eukaryotic transcription before posttranscriptional modi cation takes place. primase An enzyme that creates a messenger RNA primer for Okazaki fragment initiation. primer In DNA replication, a length of double-stranded DNA that continues as a single-stranded template in the 3 to 5 direction. primosome A complex of two proteins, a primase and helicase, that initiates RNA primers on the lagging DNA strand during DNA replication. prion Infectious agent responsible for several neurological diseases (scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome, mad-cow disease). It is a protein that lacks DNA or RNA. probability The expectation of the occurrence of a particular event. probability theory The conceptual framework concerned with quanti cation of probabilities. See probability. proband See propositus. probe In recombinant DNA work, a radioactive nucleic acid complementary to a region being searched for in a restriction digest or genomic library. processivity The ability of an enzyme to repetitively continue its catalytic function without dissociating from its substrate.
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