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sex-linked The inheritance pattern of loci located on the sex chromosomes (usually the X chromosome in XY species); also refers to the loci themselves. sex-ratio phenotype A trait in Drosophila whereby females produce mostly, if not only, daughters. sex switch A gene in mammals, normally found on the Y chromosome, that directs the indeterminate gonads towards development as testes. sexual selection The forces, determined by mate choice, that act to cause one genotype to mate more frequently than another genotype. Shine-Dalgarno hypothesis A proposal that prokaryotic messenger RNA is aligned at the ribosome by complementarity between the messenger RNA upstream from the Initiation codon and the 3 end of the 16S ribosomal RNA. shoot apical meristem The major meristematic tissue of the plant; surrounds the shoot. short interspersed elements (SINEs) Sequences of DNA interspersed in eukaryotic chromosomes in many copies. Alu, a threehundred base-pair sequence, is found about half a million times in human DNA. shotgun cloning The random cloning of pieces of the DNA of an organism without regard to the genes or sequences present in the cloned DNA. shunting Process in which the rst initiation codon on a messenger RNA is bypassed for an initiation codon further down the messenger. The process is probably guided by secondary structure in the messenger. siblings (sibs) Brothers and sisters. sigma factor The protein that gives promoter-recognition speci city to the RNA polymerase core enzyme of bacteria. signal hypothesis The major mechanism whereby proteins that must insert into or across a membrane are synthesized by a membrane-bound ribosome. The rst thirteen to thirty-six amino acids synthesized, termed a signal peptide, are recognized by a signal recognition particle that draws the ribosome to the membrane surface. The signal peptide may be removed later from the protein. signal peptide See signal hypothesis. signal recognition particle See signal hypothesis. signal transduction pathway A pathway in which the action of kinase enzymes that free transcription factors, or some other action, translates an environmental signal into some form of gene action. single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) Differences between individuals involving single base pairs that are located about every 1,000 bases along the human genome. SNPs are useful for mapping disease genes.
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single-strand binding proteins Proteins that attach to single-stranded DNA, usually near the replicating Y-junction, to stabilize the single strands. sister chromatids See chromatids. site-speci c recombination A crossover event, such as the integration of phage , that requires homology of only a very short region and uses an enzyme speci c for that recombination. small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) Components of the spliceosome, the intron-removing apparatus in eukaryotic nuclei. See snRNPs. small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (snoRNPs) Particles composed of RNA and protein found in the nucleolus that modify ribosomal RNAs, particularly by converting some uridines to pseudouridines and methylating some ribose sugars. small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) RNAs found in small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (snoRNPs) that take part in modifying ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. SMC proteins For structural maintenance of chromosomes; proteins that aid mitotic segregation, sister-chromatid adhesion, dosage compensation, recombination, and other chromosomal activities. snRNPs See small nuclear ribonucleoproteins. sociobiology The study of the evolution of social behavior in animals. somatic doubling A disruption of the mitotic process that produces a cell with twice the normal chromosome number. somatic hypermutation The occurrence of a high level of mutation in the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes. SOS box The region of the promoters of various genes that the LexA repressor recognizes. Release of repression results in the induction of the SOS response. SOS response Repair systems (RecA, Uvr) induced by the presence of single-stranded DNA that usually occurs from postreplicative gaps caused by various types of DNA damage. The RecA protein, stimulated by single-stranded DNA, is involved in the inactivation of the LexA repressor, thereby inducing the response. Southern blotting A method, rst devised by E. M. Southern, used to transfer DNA fragments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose gel for the purpose of DNADNA or DNA-RNA hybridization during recombinant DNA work. specialized transduction Form of transduction based on faulty looping out by a temperate phage. Only neighboring loci to the attachment site can be transduced. See generalized transduction. speciation A process whereby, over time, one species evolves into a different species (anagenesis) or one species diverges to become two or more species (cladogenesis).
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species A group of organisms capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. speci c transcription factors Proteins needed for activation of transcription at speci c eukaryotic promoters. Also, negative factors that can inhibit transcription at a speci c eukaryotic promoter. spermatids The four products of meiosis in males that develop into sperm. spermatogenesis The process of sperm production. spermatogonium A cell type in the testes of male vertebrates that gives rise to primary spermatocytes by mitosis. sperm cells The gametes of males. spermiogenesis The process by which spermatids mature into sperm cells. spindle The microtubule apparatus that controls chromosomal movement during mitosis and meiosis. spindle pole body Spindle microtubule organizing center found in fungi. spiral cleavage The cleavage process in mollusks and some other invertebrates whereby the spindle is tipped at mitosis in relation to the original egg axis. spirillum A spiral bacterium. spliceosome Protein-RNA complex that removes introns in eukaryotic nuclear RNAs. sporophyte The stage of a plant life cycle that produces spores by meiosis and alternates with the gametophyte stage. stabilizing selection A type of selection that removes individuals from both ends of a phenotypic distribution, thus maintaining the same distributional mean. standard deviation The square root of the variance. standard error of the mean The standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. It is the standard deviation of a sample of means. statistics Measurements of attributes of a sample from a population; denoted by Roman letters. See parameters. stem-loop structure A lollipop-shaped structure formed when a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule loops back on itself to form a complementary double helix (stem), topped by a loop. stepladder gel A DNA-sequencing gel. The numerous bands in each lane give the appearance of a stepladder. stochastic A process with an indeterminate or random element as opposed to a deterministic process with no random element. stringent factor A protein that catalyzes the formation of an unusual nucleotide (guanosine tetraphosphate) during the stringent response under amino acid starvation. stringent response A translational control mechanism in prokaryotes that represses transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA synthesis during amino acid starvation.
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