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Each area of genetics has its own particular techniques of study. Often the development of a new technique, or an improvement in a technique, has opened up major new avenues of research. As our technology has improved over the years, geneticists and other scientists have been able to explore at lower and lower levels of biological organization. Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics, did simple breeding studies of plants in a garden at his monastery in Austria in the middle of the nineteenth century. Today, with modern biochemical and biophysical techniques, it has become routine to determine the sequence of nucleotides (molecular subunits of DNA and RNA) that make up any particular gene. In fact, one of the most ambitious projects ever carried out in genetics is the mapping of the human genome, all 3.3 billion nucleotides that make up our genes. Only recently was the technology available to complete a project of this magnitude.
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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I. Genetics and the Scientific Method
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1. Introduction
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Classical, Molecular, and Evolutionary Genetics
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C L A S S I C A L , M O L E C U L A R, AND EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS
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In the next three sections, we brie y outline the general subject areas covered in the book: classical, molecular, and evolutionary genetics.
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Classical Genetics
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Gregor Mendel discovered the basic rules of transmission genetics in 1866 by doing carefully controlled breeding experiments with the garden pea plant, Pisum
sativum. He found that traits, such as pod color, were controlled by genetic elements that we now call genes ( g. 1.5). Alternative forms of a gene are called alleles. Mendel also discovered that adult organisms have two copies of each gene (diploid state); gametes receive just one of these copies (haploid state). In other words, one of the two parental copies segregates into any given gamete. Upon fertilization, the zygote gets one copy from each gamete, reconstituting the diploid number (fig. 1.6). When Mendel looked at the inheritance of several
Alternative forms
Seeds (1) Round Wrinkled
dumpy wings
Pods
(2) Full
Constricted
(3) Yellow
Green
44.0 Figure 1.5
ancon wings black body Tuft bristles spiny legs purple eyes apterous (wingless) tufted head cinnabar eyes arctus oculus eyes
Mendel worked with garden pea plants. He observed seven traits of the plant each with two discrete forms that affected attributes of the seed, the pod, and the stem. For example, all plants had either round or wrinkled seeds, full or constricted pods, or yellow or green pods.
48.5 53.2 54.0 54.5 55.2 55.5 57.5 60.1
Diploid parents
TT Tall
tt Dwarf
72.0 75.5
Lobe eyes curved wings
Haploid gametes
Diploid offspring Figure 1.6
Tt Tall
smooth abdomen
Mendel crossed tall and dwarf pea plants, demonstrating the rule of segregation. A diploid individual with two copies of the gene for tallness (T ) per cell forms gametes that all have the T allele. Similarly, an individual that has two copies of the gene for shortness (t) forms gametes that all have the t allele. Cross-fertilization produces zygotes that have both the T and t alleles. When both forms are present (Tt), the plant is tall, indicating that the T allele is dominant to the recessive t allele.
104.5 107.0
brown eyes orange eyes
Genes are located in linear order on chromosomes, as seen in this diagram of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit y. The centromere is a constriction in the chromosome. The numbers are map units.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
I. Genetics and the Scientific Method
1. Introduction
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
One
Introduction
Glucose ATP Hexokinase ADP Glucose-6-phosphate
Phosphoglucose isomerase Fructose-6-phosphate ATP Phosphofructo-kinase ADP Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
arrangement was not modi ed to any great extent until the middle of this century, after Watson and Crick worked out the structure of DNA. In general, genes function by controlling the synthesis of proteins called enzymes that act as biological catalysts in biochemical pathways ( g. 1.8). G. Beadle and E. Tatum suggested that one gene controls the formation of one enzyme. Although we now know that many proteins are made up of subunits the products of several genes and that some genes code for proteins that are not enzymes and other genes do not code for proteins, the one-gene-one-enzyme rule of thumb serves as a general guideline to gene action.
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