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Other Chromosomal Systems
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The X0 system, sometimes referred to as an X0-XX system, occurs in many species of insects. It functions just as the XY chromosomal mechanism does, except that instead of a Y chromosome, the heterogametic sex (male) has only one X chromosome. Males produce gametes that contain either an X chromosome or no sex chromosome, whereas all the gametes from a female contain the X chromosome. The result of this arrangement is that females have an even number of chromosomes (all in homomorphic pairs) and males have an odd number of chromosomes.
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II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
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5. Sex Determination, Sex Linkage, and Pedigree Analysis
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Sex Determination
Time
TDF gene functions, if present
Inhibition
Od gene functions
Gonad becomes testis
Gonad becomes ovary
Male
Female
A model for the initiation of gonad determination in mammals.
The ZW system is identical to the XY system except that males are homogametic and females are heterogametic. This situation occurs in birds, some shes, and moths. Compound chromosomal systems tend to be complex. For example, Ascaris incurva, a nematode, has eight X chromosomes and one Y. The species has twentysix autosomes. Males have thirty- ve chromosomes (26A + 8X + Y ), and females have forty-two chromosomes (26A + 16X ). During meiosis, the X chromosomes unite end to end and so behave as one unit.
Hermaphroditic owers have both male and female parts. The male parts are the anthers and laments, making up the stamen, and the female parts are the stigma, style, and ovary, making up the pistil (see g. 2.2). Ninety percent of angiosperms have hermaphroditic owers. Of the 10% of the species that have unisexual owers, some are monoecious (Greek, one house), bearing both male and female owers on the same plant (e.g., walnut); and some are dioecious (Greek, two houses), having plants with just male or just female owers (e.g., date palm). Within the group of plant species with unisexual owers, sex-determining mechanisms vary. Some species have a single locus determining sex, some have two or more loci involved in sex determination, and some have X and Y chromosomes. In most of the species with X and Y chromosomes, the sex chromosomes are indistinguishable. Among these species, most have heterogametic males, although in some species, such as the strawberry, females are heterogametic. In the very few species that have distinguishable X and Y chromosomes only thirteen are known two sex-determination mechanisms are found. One is similar to the system in mammals, in which the Y chromosome has a gene or genes present
Pseudoautosomal region
MIC2Y IL3RAY SRY RPS4 ZFY AMELY
The Y Chromosome
In both human beings and fruit ies, the Y chromosome has very few functioning genes. In human beings, two homologous regions exist, one at either end of the X and Y chromosomes, allowing the chromosomes to pair during meiosis. These regions are termed pseudoautosomal. Mapping the Y chromosome (see chapters 6 and 13) has shown us the existence of about thirty- ve genes ( g. 5.6). Other, nonfunctioning genes are present, too, remnants of a time in the evolutionary past when those genes were probably active (box 5.1). The Drosophila Y chromosome is known to carry genes for at least six fertility factors, two on the short arm (ks-1 and ks-2) and four on the long arm (kl-1, kl-2, kl-3, and kl-5). The Y chromosome carries two other known genes: bobbed, which is a locus of ribosomal RNA genes (the nucleolar organizer), and Suppressor of Stellate or Su(Ste), a gene required for RNA splicing (see chapter 10). The fertility factors code for proteins needed during spermatogenesis. For example, kl-5 codes for part of the dynein motor needed for sperm agellar movement.
Centromere
HYA AZF1 RBM1 RBM2
Condensed region
Pseudoautosomal region
Figure 5.6 The human Y chromosome. In addition to the genes shown, the Y chromosome carries other genes, homologous to X chromosome genes, that do not function because of accumulated mutations. Some of these are in multiple copies. Note the two pseudoautosomal regions that allow synapsis between the Y and X chromosomes. The gene symbols shown include MIC2Y, T cell adhesion antigen; IL3RAY, interleukin-3 receptor; RPS4, a ribosomal protein; AMELY, amelogenin; HYA, histocompatibility Y antigen; AZF1, azoospermia factor 1 (mutants result in tailless sperm); and RBM1, RBM2, RNA binding proteins 1 and 2. (Adapted from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man
website. http://www3.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/. Reprinted with permission.)
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