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Sex Determination in Flowering Plants
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Flowering plant species (angiosperms) generally have three kinds of owers: hermaphroditic, male, and female.
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
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5. Sex Determination, Sex Linkage, and Pedigree Analysis
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volutionary biologists have asked, Why does sex exist A haploid, asexual way of life seems like a very ef cient form of existence. Haploid fungi can produce thousands of haploid spores, each of which can grow into a new colony. What evolutionary bene t do organisms gain by developing diploidy and sexual processes Although this may not seem like a serious question, evolutionary biologists look for compelling answers. In chapter 21, we discuss evolutionary thinking in some detail. For the moment, accept that evolutionary biologists look for an adaptive advantage in most evolutionary outcomes. Thus they ask, What is better about the combining of gametes to produce a new generation of offspring Why would a diploid organism take a random sample of its genome and combine it with a random sample of someone else s genome to produce offspring Why not simply produce offspring by mitosis If offspring are produced by mitosis, all of an individual s genes pass into the next generation with every offspring. Not only does just half the genome of an individual pass into the next generation with every offspring produced sexually, but that half is a random jumble of what might be a very highly adapted genome. In addition, males are doubly expensive to produce because males themselves do not produce offspring: males fertilize females who produce offspring. Thus, on the surface, evolutionary biologists need to nd very strong reasons for an organism to turn to sexual reproduction when an individual might be at an advantage evolutionarily to reproduce asexually. There have been numerous suggestions as to the advantage of sex, nicely summarized in a 1994 article by James Crow, of the University of
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Experimental Methods
Why Sex and Why Y
Wisconsin, in Developmental Genetics, and more recently in a special section of the 25 September 1998 issue of Science magazine. We aren t really sure what the true evolutionary reasons for sex are, but at least three explanations seem reasonable to evolutionary biologists: Adjusting to a changing environment. Sexual reproduction allows for much more variation in organisms. A haploid, asexual organism collects variation over time by mutation. A sexual organism, on the other hand, can achieve a tremendous amount of variation by recombination and fertilization. Remember that a human being can produce potentially 2100,000 different gametes. In a changing environment, a sexually reproduced organism is much more likely than an asexual organism to produce offspring that will be adapted to the changes. Combining bene cial mutations. As mentioned, a haploid, asexual organism accrues mutations as they happen over time in a given individual. A sexual organism can combine bene cial mutations each generation by recombination and fertilization. Thus, sexually reproducing organisms can adapt at a much more rapid rate than asexual organisms. Removing deleterious mutations. Mutation is more likely to produce deleterious changes
than bene cial ones. An asexual organism gathers more and more deleterious mutations as time goes by (a process referred to as Muller s ratchet, in honor of Nobel Prize-winning geneticist H. J. Muller and referring to a ratchet wheel that can only go forward). Sexually reproducing organisms can eliminate deleterious mutations each generation by forming recombined offspring that are relatively free of mutation. Hence, this list provides three of the generally assumed advantages of sexual reproduction that offset its disadvantages. Another subtle question about sexual reproduction that evolutionary biologists ask is, Why is there a Y chromosome In other words, why do we have, in some species (e.g., people), a heteromorphic pair of chromosomes involved in sex determination, with one of the chromosomes having the gene for that sex and very few other loci In people, the Y chromosome is basically a degenerate chromosome with very few loci. This morphological difference between the members of the sex chromosome pair is puzzling. After all, chromosome pairs that do not carry sex-determining loci do not tend to be morphologically heterogeneous. Consider the following possible scenario that Virginia Morell presented in the 14 January 1994 issue of Science. In a particular species in the past evolutionarily speaking a sex-determining gene arises on a particular chromosome. One allele at this locus confers maleness on its bearer. The absence of this allele causes the carrier to be female. At this point, millions of years ago, the sex chromosomes are not morphologically heterogeneous: the X and Y chromosomes are identical. In time,
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