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With the exception of some viruses, the genetic material of all cellular organisms is double-stranded DNA, a double helical molecule shaped like a twisted ladder. The backbones of the helices are repeating units of sugars (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups. The rungs of the
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Biochemical pathways are the sequential changes that occur in compounds as cellular reactions modify them. In this case, we show the rst few steps in the glycolytic pathway that converts glucose to energy. The pathway begins when glucose ATP is converted to glucose-6-phosphate ADP with the aid of the enzyme hexokinase. The enzymes are the products of genes.
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A look at a DNA double helix, showing the sugarphosphate units that form the molecule s backbone and the base pairs that make up the rungs. We abbreviate a phosphate group as a P within a circle; the pentagonal ring containing an oxygen atom is the sugar deoxyribose. Bases are either adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine (A, T, C, G).
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traits at the same time, he found that they were inherited independently of each other. His work has been distilled into two rules, referred to as segregation and independent assortment. Scientists did not accept Mendel s work until they developed an understanding of the segregation of chromosomes during the latter half of the nineteenth century. At that time, in the year 1900, the science of genetics was born. During much of the early part of this century, geneticists discovered many genes by looking for changed organisms, called mutants. Crosses were made to determine the genetic control of mutant traits. From this research evolved chromosomal mapping, the ability to locate the relative positions of genes on chromosomes by crossing certain organisms. The proportion of recombinant offspring, those with new combinations of parental alleles, gives a measure of the physical separation between genes on the same chromosomes in distances called map units. From this work arose the chromosomal theory of inheritance: Genes are located at xed positions on chromosomes in a linear order ( g. 1.7, p. 9). This beads on a string model of gene
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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
I. Genetics and the Scientific Method
1. Introduction
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Classical, Molecular, and Evolutionary Genetics
A A T C C G C C T A T T T A G G C G G A T A Transcribed from
New Replication fork
RNA transcript Figure 1.11
U U A G G C G G A U A
Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
Transcription is the process that synthesizes RNA from a DNA template. Synthesis proceeds with the aid of the enzyme RNA polymerase. The DNA double helix partially unwinds during this process, allowing the base sequence of one strand to serve as a template for RNA synthesis. Synthesis follows the rules of DNA-RNA complementarity: A, T, G, and C of DNA pair with U, A, C, and G, respectively, in RNA. The resulting RNA base sequence is identical to the sequence that would form if the DNA were replicating instead, with the exception that RNA replaces thymine ( T) with uracil (U).
Figure 1.10 The DNA double helix unwinds during replication, and each half then acts as a template for a new double helix. Because of the rules of complementarity, each new double helix is identical to the original, and the two new double helices are identical to each other. Thus, an AT base pair in the original DNA double helix replicates into two AT base pairs, one in each of the daughter double helices.
ladder are base pairs, with one base extending from each backbone ( g. 1.9). Only four bases normally occur in DNA: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine, abbreviated A, T, G, and C, respectively. There is no restriction on the order of bases on one strand. However, a relationship called complementarity exists between bases forming a rung. If one base of the pair is adenine, the other must be thymine; if one base is guanine, the other
must be cytosine. James Watson and Francis Crick deduced this structure in 1953, ushering in the era of molecular genetics. The complementary nature of the base pairs of DNA made the mode of replication obvious to Watson and Crick: The double helix would unzip, and each strand would act as a template for a new strand, resulting in two double helices exactly like the rst ( g. 1.10). Mutation, a change in one of the bases, could result from either an error in base pairing during replication or some damage to the DNA that was not repaired by the time of the next replication cycle. Information is encoded in DNA in the sequence of bases on one strand of the double helix. During gene expression, that information is transcribed into RNA, the other form of nucleic acid, which actually takes part in protein synthesis. RNA differs from DNA in several respects: it has the sugar ribose in place of deoxyribose; it has the base uracil (U) in place of thymine (T); and it usually occurs in a single-stranded form. RNA is transcribed from DNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase, using DNARNA rules of complementarity: A, T, G, and C in DNA pair with U, A, C, and G, respectively, in RNA ( g. 1.11). The DNA information that is transcribed into RNA codes for the amino acid sequence of proteins. Three nucleotide bases form a codon that speci es one of the twenty
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