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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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I. Genetics and the Scientific Method
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1. Introduction
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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Introduction
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Table 1.2 The Genetic Code Dictionary of RNA
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Codon UUU UUC UUA UUG CUU CUC CUA CUG AUU AUC AUA AUG GUU GUC GUA GUG Amino Acid Phe Phe Leu Leu Leu Leu Leu Leu Ile Ile Ile Met (START) Val Val Val Val Codon UCU UCC UCA UCG CCU CCC CCA CCG ACU ACC ACA ACG GCU GCC GCA GCG Amino Acid Ser Ser Ser Ser Pro Pro Pro Pro Thr Thr Thr Thr Ala Ala Ala Ala Codon UAU UAC UAA UAG CAU CAC CAA CAG AAU AAC AAA AAG GAU GAC GAA GAG Amino Acid Tyr Tyr STOP STOP His His Gln Gln Asn Asn Lys Lys Asp Asp Glu Glu Codon UGU UGC UGA UGG CGU CGC CGA CGG AGU AGC AGA AGG GGU GGC GGA GGG Amino Acid Cys Cys STOP Trp Arg Arg Arg Arg Ser Ser Arg Arg Gly Gly Gly Gly
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Note: A codon, specifying one amino acid, is three bases long (read in RNA bases in which U replaced the T of DNA). There are sixty-four different codons, specifying twenty naturally occurring amino acids (abbreviated by three letters: e.g., Phe is phenylalanine see g. 11.1 for the names and structures of the amino acids). Also present is stop (UAA, UAG, UGA) and start (AUG) information.
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Ribosomes
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Ribosomes
RNA Nascent protein
Nascent protein Figure 1.12
In prokaryotes, RNA translation begins shortly after RNA synthesis. A ribosome attaches to the RNA and begins reading the RNA codons. As the ribosome moves along the RNA, amino acids attach to the growing protein. When the process is nished, the completed protein is released from the ribosome, and the ribosome detaches from the RNA. As the rst ribosome moves along, a second ribosome can attach at the beginning of the RNA, and so on, so that an RNA strand may have many ribosomes attached at one time.
naturally occurring amino acids used in protein synthesis. The sequence of bases making up the codons are referred to as the genetic code (table 1.2). The process of translation, the decoding of nucleotide sequences into amino acid sequences, takes place at the ribosome, a structure found in all cells that is made up of RNA and proteins ( g. 1.12). As the RNA moves along the ribosome one codon at a time, one amino acid attaches to the growing protein for each codon. The major control mechanisms of gene expression usually act at the transcriptional level. For transcription to take place, the RNA polymerase enzyme must be able to pass along the DNA; if this movement is prevented, transcription stops. Various proteins can bind to the DNA, thus preventing the RNA polymerase from continuing, providing a mechanism to control transcription. One particular mechanism, known as the operon model, provides the basis for a wide range of control mechanisms in prokaryotes and viruses. Eukaryotes generally contain no operons; although we know quite a bit about some control systems for eukaryotic gene expression, the general rules are not as simple. In recent years, there has been an explosion of information resulting from recombinant DNA techniques. This revolution began with the discovery of restriction endonucleases, enzymes that cut DNA at speci c se-
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
I. Genetics and the Scientific Method
1. Introduction
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Classical, Molecular, and Evolutionary Genetics
quences. Many of these enzymes leave single-stranded ends on the cut DNA. If a restriction enzyme acts on both a plasmid, a small, circular extrachromosomal unit found in some bacteria, and another piece of DNA (called foreign DNA), the two will be left with identical singlestranded free ends. If the cut plasmid and cut foreign DNA are mixed together, the free ends can re-form double helices, and the plasmid can take in a single piece of foreign DNA ( g. 1.13). Final repair processes create a completely closed circle of DNA. The hybrid plasmid is then reinserted into the bacterium. When the bacterium grows, it replicates the plasmid DNA, producing many copies of the foreign DNA. From that point, the foreign DNA can be isolated and sequenced, allowing researchers to determine the exact order of bases making up the foreign DNA. (In 2000, scientists announced the complete sequencing of the human genome.) That sequence can tell us much about how a gene works. In addition, the foreign genes can function within the bacterium, resulting in bacteria expressing the foreign genes and producing their protein products. Thus we have, for example, E. coli bacteria that produce human growth hormone. This technology has tremendous implications in medicine, agriculture, and industry. It has provided the opportunity to locate and study disease-causing genes, such as the genes for cystic brosis and muscular dystrophy, as well as suggesting potential treatments. Crop plants and farm animals are being modi ed for better productivity by improving growth and disease resistance. Industries that apply the concepts of genetic engineering are ourishing. One area of great interest to geneticists is cancer research. We have discovered that a single gene that has lost its normal control mechanisms (an oncogene) can cause changes that lead to cancer. These oncogenes exist normally in noncancerous cells, where they are called proto-oncogenes, and are also carried by viruses, where they are called viral oncogenes. Cancer-causing viruses are especially interesting because most of them are of the RNA type. AIDS is caused by one of these RNA viruses, which attacks one of the cells in the immune system. Cancer can also occur when genes that normally prevent cancer, genes called anti-oncogenes, lose function. Discovering the mechanism by which our immune system can produce millions of different protective proteins (antibodies) has been another success of modern molecular genetics.
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