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Hybrid DNA molecules can be constructed from a plasmid and a piece of foreign DNA. The ends are made compatible by cutting both DNAs with the same restriction endonuclease, leaving complementary ends. These ends will re-form double helices to form intact hybrid plasmids when the two types of DNA mix. A repair enzyme, DNA ligase, nishes patching the hybrid DNA within the plasmid. The hybrid plasmid is then reinjected into a bacterium, to be grown into billions of copies that will later be available for isolation and sequencing, or the hybrid plasmid can express the foreign DNA from within the host bacterium.
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From a genetic standpoint, evolution is the change in allelic frequencies in a population over time. Charles Darwin described evolution as the result of natural selection. In the 1920s and 1930s, geneticists, primarily Sewall
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Wright, R. A. Fisher, and J. B. S. Haldane, provided algebraic models to describe evolutionary processes. The marriage of Darwinian theory and population genetics has been termed neo-Darwinism. In 1908, G. H. Hardy and W.Weinberg discovered that a simple genetic equilibrium occurs in a population if the population is large, has random mating, and has negligible effects of mutation, migration, and natural selection. This equilibrium gives population geneticists a baseline for comparing populations to see if any evolutionary
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
I. Genetics and the Scientific Method
1. Introduction
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
One
Introduction
processes are occurring. We can formulate a statement to describe the equilibrium condition: If the assumptions are met, the population will not experience changes in allelic frequencies, and these allelic frequencies will accurately predict the frequencies of genotypes (allelic combinations in individuals, e.g., AA, Aa, or aa) in the population. Recently, several areas of evolutionary genetics have become controversial. Electrophoresis (a method for separating proteins and other molecules) and subsequent DNA sequencing have revealed that much more polymorphism (variation) exists within natural populations than older mathematical models could account for. One of the more interesting explanations for this variability is that it is neutral. That is, natural selection, the guiding force of evolution, does not act differentially on many, if not most, of the genetic differences found so commonly in nature. At rst, this theory was quite controversial, attracting few followers. Now it seems to be the view the
majority accept to explain the abundance of molecular variation found in natural populations. Another controversial theory concerns the rate of evolutionary change. It is suggested that most evolutionary change is not gradual, as the fossil record seems to indicate, but occurs in short, rapid bursts, followed by long periods of very little change. This theory is called punctuated equilibrium. A nal area of evolutionary biology that has generated much controversy is the theory of sociobiology. Sociobiologists suggest that social behavior is under genetic control and is acted upon by natural selection, as is any morphological or physiological trait. This idea is controversial mainly as it applies to human beings; it calls altruism into question and suggests that to some extent we are genetically programmed to act in certain ways. People have criticized the theory because they feel it justi es racism and sexism.
S U M M A R Y
The purpose of this chapter has been to provide a brief history of genetics and a brief overview of the following twenty chapters. We hope it serves to introduce the material and to provide a basis for early synthesis of some of the material that, of necessity, is presented in the discrete units called chapters. This chapter also differs from all the others because it lacks some of the end materials that
Suggested Readings for chapter 1 are on page B-1.
should be of value to you as you proceed: solved problems, and exercises and problems.These features are presented chapter by chapter throughout the remainder of the book. At the end of the book, we provide answers to exercises and problems and a glossary of all boldface words throughout the book.
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