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TABLE 12.3 Material Class Class Total point count A <30 B <5 All dents <0.38 mm C <17 D 0 X Requirements agreed upon
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The total point value for an area of 300 mm 300 mm of laminate determines the material class (as shown in Table 12.3). In addition to copper pits and dents, the specifications contain procedures on how to inspect for scratches, wrinkles, and inclusions. 12.4.2 Copper Peel Strength The copper peel strength of copper-clad laminates is an indicator for a variety of their performance characteristics. It indicates the bond strength of the copper circuitry of a double-sided printed circuit construction after manufacturing and any successive assembly or repair cycles. To assess the copper bond strength of the outerlayer circuitry of a multilayer construction accurately, it is necessary to take a close look at the exact build-up and copper foil used in the construction and to build specific test vehicles that are similar to the original stack-up. Copper peel strength measurements have grown increasingly important as circuit traces and pads are becoming smaller. In addition, this test allows an assessment of any potential weaknesses in multilayer constructions and identifies the interface that might delaminate first after thermal stress. The higher the initial bond strength of a material, the better. For all characterizations after thermal stress in the temperature range of lead-free assembly, it is also important to look at the decrease of bond strength. This is especially important for applications that require multiple reflow operations and one or more repair cycles. The test method is specified in IPC-TM-650, method 2.4.8, and the applicable test patterns are specified in IPC TM-650, method 5.8.3. Figure 12.1 shows an actual test pattern using a sample 100 mm 100 mm coupon with 4-mm-wide copper strips. The material being tested should be processed using the same fabrication steps that will be applied for the actual product. IPC-TM-650, method 2.4.8, recommends a specimen size of 50.8 mm 50.8 mm (2.0 in. 2.0 in.) and a minimum sample size of two for both the warp and fill (X and Y) direction of the laminate. The end of the test strip is peeled off so that a tensile
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FIGURE 12.1 Test pattern used for a copper peel strength test.
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tester can clamp it. The load cell should be calibrated to account for the weight of the clamp. The copper foil strip is then peeled from the material at a rate of 2 in. per min. The measured value is dependent on the copper thickness. The thicker the copper foil, the more force is required to deform it plastically. The value is also dependent on the angle at which it is being pulled. Therefore, it is always important to specify the thickness of the copper foil tested and to maintain a peeling force radius of 90 during the test. The minimum load is determined as specified and the peel strength is calculated using Eq. 12.1: lb/in = LM/WS where LM = Minimum load WS = Measured width of peel strip (12.1)
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Copper bond retention after exposure to soldering or touch-up temperatures is measured as outlined in IPC-TM 650, method 2.4.8, condition B. The test samples are covered with silicone grease before floating them on the solder pot at 288 C for 5 to 20 sec. to avoid solder contamination on the test strip. After allowing the samples to cool down to room temperature and removing the grease, the test is performed in the same way as previously described. It is important to inspect the specimen for any blistering or delaminations prior to testing (see also the discussion of solder shock testing in Section 12.5.2) as this may interfere with the test procedure and may indicate that the laminate material has problems with solder shock resistance. Another factor that can influence the adhesion strength of the copper foil is exposure to processing chemicals during manufacturing. Details about this test method can be found in IPC-TM 650, method 2.4.8, condition C. This test is usually performed only if specific requirements at the end-product level call for it or if the material during manufacturing exhibits low copper bond retention properties. Minimum copper peel strength values for unstressed material should be 1 N/mm or higher. The acceptable values after thermal stress are 0.8 N/mm and 0.55 N/mm after process solutions. Measurements taken at elevated temperature (125 C) should yield a minimum value of 0.7 N/mm. The authors recommends using the preceding values as guidelines and validating acceptable minimum values with actual product requirements. 12.4.3 Solder Shock The solder shock test is one of several methods to assess the thermal resistance of copper-clad laminates. It is easy to perform and represents another key test during the early assessment of a material. There are a number of different methods to choose from, which will be described in detail in Section 12.5.2. During the initial assessment of the material, it is important to choose at least one of the described test methods to make certain that the material meets the minimum requirements, especially if the material is used in higher-temperature lead-free assembly processes. Aside from solder shock testing of bare laminate material, it is also recommended that the PCB engineer consider PCB-level temperature shock as well as repeated reflow testing with a particular focus on resin-reinforcement delaminations. This will ensure that not only the raw material but also the completed PCB will be able to withstand the required temperature regime. 12.4.4 Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) A further important data point within the initial assessment is the determination of the glass transition temperature (Tg). Different test methods are described in more detail in Section 12.5.2. For the first assessment, one method should be selected. When choosing the method, it is important to make sure that the test procedure is compatible with the material in test
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