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Solder Flux Some of the fluxes in use for tin-lead soldering may not be compatible with the higher reflow temperatures associated with most Pb-free alloys. Critical materials in the flux may boil off, decompose, or oxidize before thorough fluxing can take place. Also, the flux must remain on metal surfaces to be bonded until reflow occurs since it serves as an oxygen barrier. Were the flux to disappear too soon, reoxidation of the solder and bonding surfaces may occur, which will retard solder wetting. Fluxes for Pb-free solders must be tailored to the composition of the new solder alloys and their inherently higher soldering process temperatures, and to the Pb-free surface finishes on component leads and PWB bonding pads.
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Hygiene Distinct health benefits are associated with the removal of Pb from printed circuit assemblies. Pb s toxicity is well documented, and the most serious problems are associated with direct ingestion of Pb-bearing materials (for example, children ingesting peeling Pb-based paint or lead in drinking water from Pb-soldered plumbing). This accumulating heavy metal dissolves slowly in the human body. Although there is conflicting evidence as to whether Pb from solder can leach into the water table from landfills at a rate that warrants concern, it is in everyone s best interest to explore alternative solder alloys and migrate from Pb-based solders. Printed circuit board assembly operations will certainly benefit in that the labor force will encounter lower toxicity. Solder dross generated during wave soldering or disturbed while performing wave solder maintenance is a major source of Pb inhalation in manufacturing plants. Airborne dross is also generated at solder fountain operations, hot-air rework, and even during hand soldering. The move to a Pb-free environment will also eliminate concerns for ingested fines from Pb-contaminated hands.
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1.4.6 Lead Replacement Cost In the United States and other countries, some legislative initiatives aimed at restricting the use of Pb have failed. This failure spurred research for solder replacement alloys. Several corporations and universities devised Pb-free solders, some of which were patented. As is the case with any patented item or process, the rights to invention reside with the inventor or sponsoring corporation in the short term, and several of these alloys may not be used freely. In some cases, only slight modifications in alloy composition separate commonly available solder alloys from patented solder compositions. The cost of patent licensing, whether by the end user or solder manufacturer, will be borne largely by the end user. In almost every case, the cost of Pb-free solder is at minimum 20 percent higher than for Sn-Pb solder. PWB laminates are more costly, as are many of the components. Energy costs go up with the need for higher reflow soldering temperatures. There is significant cost in training of personnel to deal with the change to a Pb-free environment. Separate lines for Pb d and Pbfree solder may be required. Both tin and lead are abundant, easy to refine, and thus inexpensive. This is not the case for some of the constituents of lead-free solders being considered, such as indium (In), gallium (Ga), and silver (Ag). Even bismuth (Bi) is a minor constituent of Pb ore and comes largely from Pb refining. In wave soldering, a large volume (hundreds of pounds) of solder is required to fill the wave solder reservoir (solder pot). The cost and availability of some of the lead-free alloys make them impractical for the large volume of the solder pot. Compare Sn-Pb solder at roughly USD $1.50 per pound to Sn-0.7Cu at USD $2.30 and Sn2Ag0.8Cu0.5Sb at USD $4.00 per pound. Granted, with lead being such a heavy element, price per pound is not the best metric; price per unit volume is a more significant measure. Nonetheless, moving away from the Sn-Pb binary
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