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LAMINATE QUALIFICATION AND TESTING
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12.5.3.1 Dielectric Constant (Dc ) and Dissipation Factor (Df ). The dielectric constant (also known as permittivity, Dc, and er) is defined as the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor with a given dielectric (laminate) to the capacitance of the same capacitor with air as the dielectric. It is a measure of the ability of a material to store electrostatic energy and determines the relative speed that an electrical signal will travel within that material. The higher the Dc, the slower the resulting signal propagation speed will be. The signal speed is inversely proportionate to the square root of the dielectric constant. It is not an easy property to measure or to specify, because it depends not only on the material properties and the resin-to-glass ratio, but also on the test method, test signal frequency, and the conditioning of the samples before and during the test. It also tends to shift with temperature. Still, Dc values are important for computer simulations that are used to predict the performance of impedance-controlled high-end multilayer constructions, especially when new laminate materials are FIGURE 12.8 Dielectric constant test. considered. See Fig. 12.8 for a schematic representation of the test. Related to the dielectric constant is the dissipation factor (Df) or loss tangent. This is a measure of the percentage of the total transmitted power that will be lost as electrons dissipate into the laminate material. See Fig. 12.9 for a schematic representation of the test. Several test methods are specified in IPC-TM-650 to determine the dielectric constant and the dissipation factor (methods 2.5.5, 2.5.5.1, and 2.5.5.2). Both methods 2.5.5 and 2.5.5.2 test laminate FIGURE 12.9 Dissipation material with fully removed copper.At least three samples need to be factor test. tested because of the large influence of the dielectric thickness on the determined value. Method 2.5.5.1 employs samples with an etched pattern. All of these measurements are based on the capacitance of the corresponding sample. With this capacitance and the area and thickness of the sample capacitor it is possible to calculate the dielectric constant. The dissipation factor is determined with methods 2.5.5.1 and 2.5.5.2. In one case, the value can be read from the equipment display (Agilent Technologies Mdl 4271A); in the other, it can be calculated from the measured sample conductance and capacitance and the measuring frequency. 12.5.3.2 Surface and Volume Resistivity. Electrical resistivity of laminate materials is differentiated between specific surface resistance and volume resistance. The surface resistance s characterizes the electrical resistance between two conductors along the surface of the laminate material. The volume resistance r describes the electrical resistance between two layers of conducting copper along the z-axis of the laminate material. The higher the values for both of these electrical properties, the better, as this ensures proper isolation of individual copper conductors in the printed circuit board. Both resistance values are determined according to IPC-TM-650, method 2.5.17. All resistance measurements are done with equipment capable of measuring up to 1012 megohm while applying 500 volts direct current to the test specimen (Agilent Technologies 16008A). The sample s size is 101.6mm 101.6mm for laminates thicker than 0.51 mm and 50.8 mm 50.8 mm for laminates below 0.51 mm thickness. The test pattern according to method 2.5.17 should be applied to the samples using standard photo and etch processes. All measurements are performed by applying 500 volts direct current.The voltage needs to be applied to the samples for 60 sec. before taking the resistance reading to allow the test structures to stabilize. The surface resistance is determined between the outer ring electrode and the inner solid electrode.The volume resistance is determined between the solid front and back electrodes after changing the connecting cables appropriately. The values for volume and surface resistivity can be calculated from the measured resistance values as shown in Eqs. 12.5 and 12.6. Volume resistivity r (meg-ohm-cm) r = (R*A)/T (12.5)
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