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eutectic will mean significantly higher manufacturing materials costs. Also, during wave soldering, the molten and flowing wave will tend to dissolve certain surface finishes, which may eventually build up and change the composition of the solder alloy. Different solder alloys have different metals dissolution properties. Therefore, using the same lead-free solder alloy for wave soldering as for reflow may be impractical. Some of the overt costs and impacts of moving to lead-free solders were mentioned previously in this chapter. There are other potentially hidden costs. Soldering equipment may not have the bandwidth to handle the higher temperatures of some of the pb-free alloys. Reflow ovens may need to be constructed out of different materials to handle long-term effects of the higher temperatures. Fan bushings and polymeric seals to maintain inert atmosphere integrity may not withstand much above the temperature regimes required for Sn-Pb processing. These same considerations apply to wave soldering. Hand soldering irons will require higher temperatures, and more boards will likely have to be scrapped due to localized charring while trying to attain reflow during the hand soldering operation or at repair. Board materials, fluxes, and such may require reformulating, which is also likely to drive costs higher.
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1.4.7 Equipment Changes In some cases, soldering equipment changes are required to accommodate higher process temperatures and contact with materials other than Sn and Pb. Such changes are discussed in more detail in Chap. 47.
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1.4.8 Scrapping and Material Mistakes There will be costs associated with segregating materials (Pb d versus Pb-free) and associated increased floor space for carrying two inventories (Pb d and Pb-free). Noncompliant materials will have to be scrapped or sold off to those still using leaded processes. It is anticipated that in the early throes of the conversion to Pb-free, parts inventories occasionally will be inadvertently mixed, which may impact finished goods reliability and also make these products unacceptable for import to Europe after July 1, 2006, due to tenets of the RoHS directive.
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1.4.9 Training Every facet of manufacturing is touched by this change, whether it is the soldering process, solder joint inspection, electrical testing, material inventories, bill-of-materials verification, purchase specifications, inventory separation, and incoming materials inspection. The adaptations of RoHS and Pb-free standards for printed circuit assembly certainly require the most extensive changes that the electronics industry has ever needed to make. Great care has to go into training of personnel at every level of printed circuit assembly (PCA) building and support.
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1.4.10 Reliability Testing The change of materials and solders to accommodate the elimination of Pb necessitates reliability testing of the Pb-free assemblies to ensure that reliability is comparable to that of Sn-Pb assemblies. Reliability test methods, parameters, and models will have to be refined to match material properties of Pb-free assemblies.
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1.4.11 In-Circuit Test (ICT) Since the process temperature for most lead-frees are higher than for eutectic- or near-eutectic Sn-Pb solder, any flux residues associated with No-Clean soldering are more thoroughly baked onto PWB surface metals. This inhibits electrical test probe contact. Even with today s No-Clean solder pastes and with Sn-Pb solders, electrical probing can be a challenge. Often the residues that cover test points necessitate multiple seating cycles of the test probes to penetrate the flux residue.
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The relative benefits of removing or reducing lead remain controversial. Some studies have shown a net negative effect due to the energy materials and processes required for the production and use of replacement lead-free materials. Whatever the long-term environmental impact, the short-term consequences clearly create a technical challenge to ensure reliable, costeffective printed circuit assemblies. There are neither drop-in replacements for Sn-Pb solder nor industry wide consensus for a single-solder alloy. The alloys that are most promising have significant challenges due to raw materials pricing, limited reliability data, and yet-to-be-determined interactions with other materials. It has taken many years to understand the properties of Sn-Pb solder, its metallurgical behavior, solder joint properties, and soldering methodologies. Any new solders will have to undergo scrutiny to determine key characteristics of process and reliability. Since the paradigm for characterizing solders and reliability has been honed through the millennia-long use of Sn-Pb solder, the development cycle for Pb-free solder should be significantly streamlined. On the other hand, the rapid changeover to Pb-free solder brings with it risks with regard to process effectiveness and control, as well as the longterm reliability of the end product. These risks will require continuous reevaluations of the solder alloy choice, appropriate surface finishes, soldering conditions, materials compatibility (PWB, IC packages, and such), redefinition of solder volume requirements for reliable solder joint strength, and even some equipment changes.As a result, the Chap. 45 on Solder Materials contains a detailed discussion of lead-free alloys and materials and offer several choices on materials and discussion of their characteristics. Since nearly all the practical Pb-free alloy choices have a higher melting temperature, a requisite higher energy consumption and energy cost is associated with the new soldering materials. Equipment changes needed for Pb-free processing will be discussed in Chaps. 46 and 47. Also, as Pb-based solder will remain in use until at least 2010 as per RoHS, another likely mode of failure will be the inadvertent use of Pb-free solder with Pb d packages or Pb d solder with Pb-free packages. Although there is some backward and forward compatibility in terms of solders, packages, and surface finishes, there are also some difficulties. Some packages meant for use in the Pb d process will not tolerate the higher soldering temperatures associated with most Pb-free solders. In the case of a Pb-free ball grid array (BGA) soldered with Pb d solder, or vice versa, it is already known that there will be a negative impact to the resultant solder joint reliability for the leading Pb-free candidate solders. Increased tensile strength with increased brittleness is commonly reported for the tin-silver-copper system a leading replacement candidate. China, Japan, and Korea have legislative initiatives taking shape that are similar to the EU s, WEEE, and RoHS directives. This is the case for several U.S. states also. There is no escaping the fact that Pb-free soldering will be the mainstay of all future electronics interconnections.
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