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are the principal dielectrics for microwave and RF circuits.All of these materials can be used with or without reinforcements.
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Embedded Components Materials Specialized materials have been developed to allow construction of passive components such as resistors and capacitors into the PCB structure itself. Most of these materials are patented and available from a very small supplier base. 13.5.7.1 Embedded Resistors. These are formed by plating a very thin film of nickel or other metal onto a copper foil layer and laminating this foil, plated side in, to an FR-4 or other substrate material.To form a resistor, a window is opened in the copper foil, exposing the underlying nickel resistor layer. A resistor of the appropriate value is formed in the resistance material layer. Contact is made with the resulting resistor by etching connecting pads in the copper foil layer and drilling holes through these pads and plating the holes. (See Fig. 13.13.)
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Nonconductive area Plated through-hole Copper (connects PTH to the resistive element)
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0.019 in 0.043 in resistive element
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Copper (2.5 V plane)
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FIGURE 13.13 The two light diagonal shapes in the figure above are terminating resistors for ECL transmission lines. They are formed directly in the VTT powerplane by etching the copper away from the underlying nickel resistive layer. One end of each resistor is connected to the device terminal using a via and the other end is connected directly to the 2.5V plane. (Courtesy of Ohmega Industries.)
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Resistive material is available in 25- and 100- /square values. The principal application of embedded resistor technology is as terminating resistors for ECL transmission lines and as resistors on flexible circuits in products such as cameras and portable tape and CD players. Practical resistor values range from about 10 to 1000 . 13.5.7.2 Embedded Capacitance. This is formed by placing two copper planes close to each other using very thin dielectrics (1.5 to 2.0 mils). The principal application is in the creation of very high quality, high-frequency capacitance between two power planes. This does indeed result in high-quality capacitance, but usually at a high cost resulting from the need to add a pair of extra planes to a PCB in order to create the capacitance (see Fig. 13.14).
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FIGURE 13.14
Capacitance per unit area vs. dielectric thickness.
13.6 FABRICATION METHODS
A wide variety of fabrication methods has been developed to meet the needs of the electronics industry. The following descriptions are quick summaries of each method intended to acquaint the reader with their advantages and disadvantages and likely applications. Detailed treatments are presented elsewhere in this book.
13.6.1 Punch Forming Punch forming is used in the manufacture of very low cost, single-sided PCBs such as are used in many consumer electronic products. The process involves printing and etching the conductor patterns on one side of a laminate substrate, usually paper-reinforced epoxy. All holes are punched in a single stroke by a die containing a pin and opening for each hole. The PCB outline is formed in a second die that blanks it from the panel in which it is processed. Often, several PCBs will be contained in a single panel sized to travel through the assembly process. After a PCB is punched out of the panel, it is forced back into the vacant hole and is held in place by interlocking fibers along the edges of the PCB. After assembly and testing is complete, each PCB is pressed from the panel. This is known as crackerboarding and is aimed at reducing overall manufacturing costs.
13.6.2 Roll Forming Roll forming is a process used to manufacture flexible circuits in very large quantities. This is the lowest-cost method for the manufacture of flexible circuits. However, it involves substantial tooling, so it is applicable only for very high volume products. Examples of PCBs manufactured using this method are printer head connections, disk drive head connections, and the circuits used in cameras and camcorders. The PCBs can be single- or double-sided.
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