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15.1 PRINTED CIRCUIT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
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The electrical characteristics of printed board and multichip electrical connection substrates have become a critical functional product definition, and design requirement, for many electrical and electronic products. Until the late 1980s, most printed board designs were printed wiring designs, in that, with the exception of power and ground distribution, component placement and the arrangement of conductive and nonconductive patterns were not critical for functional electrical requirements. This was particularly true for most digital applications. However, since the late 1980s, electrical signal integrity has become a more serious design consideration in order to meet both functional performance and regulatory compliance requirements.
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15.2 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL SIGNAL INTEGRITY
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Electrical signal integrity is a combination of frequency and voltage/current, depending on the application. In low-level analog, very small leakage voltages or currents, thermal instabilities, and electromagnetic couplings can exceed acceptable limits of signal distortion. In a similar manner, most digital components can erroneously switch by application of less than 1 V of combined dc and ac signals.
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15.2.1 Drivers for Electrical Signal Integrity Analog and digital signals are subject to many issues that can cause signal distortion and degrade signal integrity. Some of these concern the transmission of the signal, and some the return paths. 15.2.1.1 Signal Integrity Terms for Both Analog and Digital Signals. a listing of many of the issues that affect the signal transmission. Table 15.1 provides
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TABLE 15.1 Representative List of Issues for Both Analog and Digital Signals Rise time Fall time Skew Jitter High skew rate Intermodulation distortion Harmonic distortion Phase distortion Crossover distortion Thermal offset voltage Thermal offset current Low-level amplifier High-impedance amplifier Charge amplifier Integrating amplifier Wideband amplifier Video amplifier Precision amplifier
15.2.1.2 Return Paths. All electrical signals have a signal conductor and a signal return path. Very frequently, the signal conductor is shown on the schematic and the return conductor is neither shown nor mentioned on the schematic/logic drawing. This can also present a problem with PB CAD (computer-aided design) tools. Some CAD tools are dumb in that they will automatically route a transmission line as one of the signal conductors but will not route the necessary signal ground on one of the adjacent conductive pattern layers.
Analog Electrical Signal Integrity The design of some analog printed circuits is a critical balance of all of the known parameters and characteristics of the complete design-through-use product development, manufacturing, assembly, test, and use processes. Analog designs cover all or portions of the complete electromagnetic spectrum, from dc all the way up into the GHz range of frequencies. Active and passive electrical/electronic components and materials have various levels of sensitivity to operating environments and conditions, such as temperature, thermal shock, vibration, voltage, current, electromagnetic fields, and light. In particular, the signal input terminals, voltage connections, and especially analog signal grounds are critical to analog signal integrity. 15.2.2.1 Sensitive Circuitry Isolation. One of the key methods to improve analog signal integrity is to isolate or separate the more critical or sensitive portions of the design. Sensitive circuitry may be susceptible to one or more external forces, such as electromagnetic, voltage, and grounding systems, mechanical shock/vibration, and thermal. Sometimes the more sensitive circuitry is repackaged into a separate function module that provides its own isolation and separation from the offending condition. Isolation and separation can be provided by physical separation, electromagnetic and thermal barriers, improved ground practices and design, power source filtering, signal isolators, shock and vibration dampeners, and elevated or lowered temperature controlled environment. 15.2.2.2 Thermal Electromotive Force. Below a few millivolts, thermal electromotive forces (EMFs) can have a significant impact on low-level analog signal integrity. Thermal EMFs of a nonsymmetrical sequence of various metal junctions (conductors) or symmetrical sequences of various metal junctions operating at different temperatures will generate and inject undesirable voltage (or induce unwanted currents) into the electrical signal path. This thermocouple effect is desirable in the case of temperature measurements. However, in the case of other low-level measurements it is an undesirable characteristic. Therefore, the requirement for low-signal-level PCDs is to ensure that all components and electrical interconnection networks and corresponding electrical terminations (such as soldered, welded, wire-bonded, or conductive adhesive) are symmetrical and isothermal. Electrical components, such as thin/thick-film resistors of different values (resistance), may have resistor elements
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