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Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.
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Conductor Sizing Chart Development Charts have been in existence for many years. They have been adequate for most applications, although they have their limitations. The external and internal conductor-sizing charts in IPC 2221, Generic Standard on Printed Board Design, are the standard for sizing traces and are included as Figs. 16.1 and 16.2, respectively. The original external conductor chart was developed in 1956. It was assembled from trace heating test data taken from boards of different materials, different thicknesses, and different copper weights, as well as from boards with and without copper planes.The external charts are nonconservative for thin double-sided boards without copper (power, ground, or thermal) planes. Nonconservative in this context means that the traces are higher in temperature for a given current level than the charts suggest. The temperature differences are discussed later in the chapter. The internal conductor chart is conservative for traces with cross-sectional area up to 700 sq. mil. It becomes less conservative at high current levels or with larger cross-sectional areas. The internal conductor-sizing chart represents half the current from the external conductor chart. It does not represent internal conductor test data. The internal trace chart has significant margin and should be used for sizing both internal and external conductors when possible. When that is not possible, a more detailed approach can be taken. The first step is to use new charts that focus on the baseline set of charts.
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New Conductor (Trace) Sizing Charts IPC-2152, Standard for Determining Current Carrying Capacity in Printed Board Design, is written specifically for the carrying capacity of conductor current. Additional charts are provided that separate the variables that impact the temperature rise of a trace when current is applied. There is a baseline set of charts for internal and external conductors. The baseline is conservative for most designs, although generally less conservative than the IPC 2221 internal conductor-sizing chart. The difference between the new and old is that attention is given to parameters that affect the temperature rise of a trace; some of these parameters include the board thickness, presence of copper planes, and the environment surrounding the circuit board. This chapter is presented as additional information on the existing charts in IPC 2221, as well as an aid to bridge the gap between the old and new charts that are presented.
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Current carrying capacity is commonly defined in terms of the temperature rise in a trace as a result of applying a specific amount of current to a specific size trace. The temperature rise is dependent on:
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The current level The board thickness The cross-sectional area of the trace The thickness of the trace for a given cross-sectional area The distance from a trace to copper planes The board material The environment (still air, forced air, vacuum, etc.) Skin effect at high speed (GHz)
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Circuit Board Designs Circuit boards can be extremely different from one design to another. They can vary from a double-sided board the size of a postage stamp to a 40-layer board that is 2 ft. wide and 4 ft. long. The environment in which they operate is also a consideration for example, whether they are used on earth, in space, or on some other planet. Because there is such a broad range of printed circuit board (PCB) construction and materials, a single trace-sizing chart cannot be expected to describe the temperature rise of a trace as a function of current for all boards. Fine-line and space, heavy copper, single-layer boards, and multilayer boards all constitute different configurations in which traces with the same cross-sectional area could vary from 10 to 70 C, or more for the same amount of applied current.
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Conductor (Trace) Sizing Charts Five different charts are presented in this chapter. The first has been around since the beginning of the printed circuit industry and is intended for external traces. The second is for sizing internal traces. The third and fourth are for internal and external traces. These are from more recent studies and are referred to as baseline charts. The fifth is used with the baseline charts to account for the heat spreading and cooling effect when copper planes exist in the board. Even with these charts, there are times when charts alone do not offer enough information and analysis tools must be used to solve current carrying capacity problems. The charts included in this chapter are presented as a guide for sizing copper traces. There are limitations to their use and those limitations are discussed in the trace-sizing guidelines. The trace-sizing charts are used to manage trace heating, which includes sizing parallel conductors and vias. Finally, design problem areas such as swiss-cheese effect and environments are discussed at the end of this chapter. For each set of charts, a discussion of what each chart represents and where it best applies for circuit board design applications is included. The charts included are as follows:
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External and internal charts from IPC 2221, the industry standard for printed circuit board design: The external chart, Fig. 16.1, does not include design margin unless there is at least one internal copper plane in the board, such as a power or ground plane. The internal chart, Fig. 16.2, is conservative, has significant margin, and keeps internal board heating to a minimum; more discussion is included in the design guidelines. Baseline charts.These are additional charts for sizing conductors and show an example of the effect of variables that impact trace temperature rise when current is applied. (Additional baseline charts can be obtained from Thermal Man, Inc., that take into account FR-4, BT, copper planes, and board thicknesses of 0.038 to 0.059 in.) Further discussion follows regarding the significance of the copper weight or thickness, board material, board thickness, and copper planes: Internal conductor sizing charts for 1 oz. copper in a 1.78 mm (0.07 in.) thick polyimide board. (It is common to refer to the thickness of copper by weight, e.g., 1/4 oz., 1/2 oz., 1 oz., 2 oz., etc. The weight refers to the weight of a 1 sq. ft. piece of copper at a specific thickness. For example, 1oz. copper is 1 sq. ft. of 0.00135 in. copper. The weight can be calculated using the density of copper, 0.323 lb./in.).3 External conductor sizing charts for 2 oz. external conductors in a 1.78 mm (0.07 in.) thick polyimide board. Plane chart for a 1.78 mm thick polyimide PWB. This is a chart that describes the reduction in trace temperature rise as a function of the distance from a single copper plane.This chart is used with the internal and external baseline charts.
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