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FIGURE 16.1
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External conductor sizing chart.
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CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY IN PRINTED CIRCUITS
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IPC-2221 internal conductor sizing chart.
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External and Internal Conductor Charts Figure 16.1 is for sizing external conductors, whereas Fig. 16.2 is for internal conductors; both are from the IPC standard 2221. External refers to the outermost layers of the printed circuit board. Until recent years, internal trace heating data were not broadly published. Figure 16.2 represents a conservative approach to internal trace heating; it does not represent internal trace heating data, although it does represent half the current from the external trace-sizing chart.
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Trace Temperature Rise The trace temperature rise derived from a conductor-sizing chart represents the increase in the trace temperature above the local board temperature surrounding the trace. For example, if the board temperature is 85 C as a result of component heating, and the trace is designed for a 10 C rise, then the trace will be 95 C. The temperature rise is the increase in temperature that the trace experiences when current is applied.
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How to Use the Charts Conductor sizing charts require knowing two of three variables: current, trace temperature rise, or trace size. If you know any two of these variables, you can calculate the other. When a more accurate estimate of the trace temperature rise is needed, board thickness, copper thickness, and board material are also used. 16.4.3.1 Chart Basics:Known Current. When the current and the desired temperature rise are known, then the trace width can be calculated for various trace thicknesses. A 10 C rise is a common temperature rise for a design. The temperature rise should always be minimized. If the designer can manage a 1 C rise or less, then the contribution to board heating will be minimized. Increasing the size of a trace lowers the temperature rise, lowers the voltage drop, decreases component temperatures, and improves the reliability of the product. The following is an example of using Fig. 16.1: What is the required size trace that will have a 10 C rise if 6 amps is applied to it Starting with the top chart, follow the line going across from 6 amps to the curve labeled 10 C. The 10 C curve represents the temperature rise that occurs for a specific size trace at that current level. Next, follow the line going down from the 10 C curve and look at where it intersects the axis labeled CROSS SECTION IN SQ MILS. The cross section is the cross-sectional area of the trace. The final step is to determine the trace width. The lower chart in Fig. 16.1 is used to determine the trace width for various copper thicknesses. For the same cross-sectional area, the width will be smaller for thick copper and wider for thin copper. Continuing with the example, follow the vertical line down from 200 sq. mil. into the lower chart to the line labeled (1 oz/ft2 ) 0.0014 ; see the discussion of copper thickness in Section 16.4.5. Following the line across to the axis labeled CONDUCTOR WIDTH IN INCHES shows that the trace should be 0.15 in. wide for a copper trace that is 0.0014 in. thick. If 3 oz. copper were selected, the trace width would be approximately 0.05 in. wide rather than 0.15 in. wide for 1 oz. copper. 16.4.3.2 Chart Basics:Known Cross-Sectional Area. If a trace size is known, the temperature rise or the current can be determined. The temperature rise can be estimated only in the range between the curves of constant temperature rise. The current can be estimated if the temperature rise is given. Each of these calculations is performed using the method presented in Fig. 16.1.
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Current vs. Cross Section for 10 C. Temp. Rise of Etched Copper Conductors 35 30 25 20 16 Current in amperes 12 9 6 4 3 2 1.5 1 .25 0 4 16 36 64 100 144 196 256 Cross section in sq. mils 324 400 484 576 676
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