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TABLE 16.1 Sample Internal Copper Thickness 1/2 oz. (in.) Maximum Minimum Median Average 0.0006 0.0006 0.0006 0.0006 1 oz. (in.) 0.0015 0.0010 0.0011 0.00117 2 oz. (in.) 0.00260 0.00230 0.00245 0.00247 3 oz. (in.) 0.00400 0.00380 0.00385 0.00387
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The IPC internal trace-sizing chart is suggested under the following conditions if: The board does not have internal or external copper planes The panel thickness is 0.8 mm (0.315 in.) or less The conductor thickness is 0.108 mm (0.00425 in.) or thicker For single conductor applications, a chart may be used directly for determining conductor widths, conductor thickness, cross-sectional area, and current carrying capacity for various temperature rises. For groups of similar parallel conductors, if closely spaced, the temperature rise may be found by using an equivalent cross-section and an equivalent current. The equivalent cross-section is equal to the sum of the cross-sections of the parallel conductors, and the equivalent current is the sum of the currents in the conductors. Parallel conductors refer to conductors on all layers of a PWB. Closely spaced is as much as 25.4 mm (1 in.) spacing and less. Closely related to parallel conductors are coils. For applications where etched coils are to be used, the maximum temperature rise may be obtained by using an equivalent cross-section equal to 2n times the cross-section of the conductor, and an equivalent current equal to 2n times the current in the coil, where n is equal to the number of turns. 2 The effect of heating due to attachment of power-dissipating parts is not included. Component heating will impact the board temperature rise. The increase in electrical resistance of the trace due to an elevated temperature is a secondary effect on trace temperature rise. The final trace temperature is estimated as the PWB temperature plus the delta T selected for the trace. All design guidelines presented are for a still air environment. The IPC internal conductor chart is recommended for the following: Flex circuits
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All trace sizing, which includes external traces when possible
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Space (vacuum) and high-altitude environments The IPC external conductor-sizing chart should be used only when at least one copper plane (power or ground) exists in the PWB. For trace sizes outside the range of the chart (over 700 sq. mil), consider the following: Extrapolating the external IPC charts is not recommended. If extrapolation is to be performed, use a baseline chart; however, extrapolating the IPC charts is not recommended. Use a thermal analysis software tool for determining the temperature rise. For space (vacuum) environments, consider the following: The internal conductor chart is best for sizing both internal and external traces that must operate in space or vacuum environments.
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When sizing traces and taking into account the copper planes in the board (still air), consider the following:
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1. Using charts developed from trace heating data in PWBs with no internal copper and following IPC-TM-650 guidelines is the recommended method for sizing traces. Charts that include the influence of copper planes should be used for determining design margin. A copper plane that is 0.127 mm (0.005 in.) or less from a trace can reduce the trace temperature rise by as much as 70 percent. 2. The presence of copper planes in the printed circuit board provide heat spreading and lower the temperature rise of a trace. When sizing traces using data that takes into account copper planes, the design guidelines change. The heat spreading is significant and heating from all conductors in the area of a plane are mutually influential.Therefore, all traces within the area of the plane must be considered when summing the current following the parallel conductor rule. (The trace must be under or over the plane, not adjacent to the plane, to use charts that consider planes, and the plane must be larger than 3 in. 3 in. in area.) 3. The distance from a trace to the plane has a significant effect on the temperature rise of the trace. Multiple factors are involved when sizing traces using charts that take into account the heat spreading due to the presence of copper planes: a. The trace temperature rise is a function of the size of the plane: b. Below 9 sq. in. (3 in. 3 in.), the impact has not been completely characterized, although the cooling effect is not enough to take the heat spreading into account over the baseline prediction. c. From 9 sq. in. to 40 sq. in., the cooling effect from the increased area is improved by approximately 10 percent. d. Above 40 sq. in., the effect on trace temperature remains the same. e. The trace temperature rise is a function of the total power dissipated by all the traces. There is a diminishing return when the power dissipated by the traces exceeds the capability of the board to spread and dissipate the power. f. The thickness of the copper plane has a direct effect on the trace temperature rise. The next section shows a very specific set of trace heating data. The data set is presented so that the variables that impact the temperature rise of a powered trace are separated. A discussion is included with each data set.
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