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Temperature (degrees) Heat flux (watts) Thermal conductivity (Watts/(in-C) Resistance (degrees/watt)
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voltage (volts) current (amps) electrical conductivity (Mhos/in.)1 resistance (ohms or 1/Mhos)
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The voltage drop is calculated based on actual dimension for the problem. If plate elements are used to represent a copper plane in a printed circuit board, the actual PCB dimensions are needed and the actual copper thickness is required. 16.6.2 Voltage Sources A voltage source is defined as a point where voltage is applied in a circuit.This would typically be a power supply. In a thermal analysis tool, this is analogous to defining a boundary temperature. 16.6.3 Current Source (or Sink) A point where a defined amount of current is added or removed is a heat load in a thermal analysis tool. If a component draws a specified current at a point in the PCB model, the current would be represented as a negative heat load at that point. If a voltage source acts as a constant current source as opposed to a constant voltage source, it would be represented as a positive heat load. 16.6.4 Electrical Conductivity For geometric elements such as plates, bricks, and tetrahedrons, thermal conductivity should be in units of Mhos/length, where Mhos equals 1 ohm. Units of length must be consistent with those used in the rest of the model.
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Copper thickness is assumed 35.6 m (0.0014 in.) thick for 1 oz. copper or possibly 34.3 m (0.00135 in.).Two-ounce copper is considered twice those values and half the thickness for 1/2 oz. copper. IPC 2221 specifies the minimum acceptable copper thickness for an internal layer as shown in Table 16.4. The minimums are significantly less than what designers may think and should be considered when pushing current limits on small trace widths. For example, 1 oz. is
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TABLE 16.4 Minimum Internal Copper Foil Thickness3 Internal conductor thickness after processing Minimum thickness Copper foil 1/8 oz. 1/4 oz. 3/8 oz. 1/2 oz. 1 oz. 2 oz. 3 oz. 4 oz. ( m) 3.5 6 8 12 25 56 91 122 (in.) 0.000138 0.000236 0.000315 0.000472 0.000984 0.002205 0.003583 0.004803
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TABLE 16.5 Minimum External Conductor Thickness4 External conductor thickness after plating Minimum Base copper foil 1/8 oz. 1/4 oz. 3/8 oz. 1/2 oz. 1 oz. 2 oz. 3 oz. 4 oz. ( m) 20 20 25 33 46 76 107 137 (in.) 0.000787 0.000787 0.000984 0.001299 0.001811 0.002992 0.004213 0.005394
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allowed to be a minimum of 0.00098 in. thick rather than 0.0014 in. This significant difference can cause a 50 percent difference in trace temperature rise. Fortunately, copper thickness tends to run more toward a nominal, although attention should be given to the fact that minimum thicknesses do exist and have the potential of being a problem if the limits are being pushed on temperature rise and current level. External conductors have a thicker minimum (see Table 16.5) due to plating during the final processing steps at the manufacturer. It is always recommended to discuss the details of the board with the circuit board manufacturer. The board manufacturer will know what the typical thickness of the final product will be, which will vary from one board design to another.The final thickness can also be defined on drawings that are sent to the manufacturer.
REFERENCES
1. Hoynes, D. S., Characterization of Metal-Insulator Laminates, by Progress Report to Navy Bureau of Ships, National Bureau of Standards Report 4283, January 1955 December 1955. (The National Bureau of Standards is now the National Institute of Standards and Technology [NIST].) 2. Ibid., May 1, 1956, p. 25. 3. IPC-2221, Internal Layer Foil Thickness after Processing, Copper Foil Minimum, Table 10-1. 4. Ibid., Table 10-2.
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