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During each phase of thermal modeling, the solids of the components, PCB, and system enclosure must be defined to the code. These solids are meshed by the code, a process through which the objects are broken into tens of thousands of discrete nodal points. The computer calculates thermal parameters such as temperature and heat flow at each of these nodal points as a function of neighboring nodal points rather than trying to solve analytical equations for the thermal fields. If the meshing is fine enough, the calculated solution will be very accurate. If the meshing is too coarse, errors will creep into the model. There is a trade-off between accuracy and run time in computer simulations; models with coarser meshes usually run much faster than models with fine meshes. It is best for users to become familiar with the mesh sensitivity of their chosen modeling tool to optimize run time versus accuracy before running critical analyses. When performing a CFD system-level analysis to determine temperatures on a PCB, it is important to include all airflow obstructions that might change the convection on the PCB and its components. Common airflow obstructions include cables, RF shields, daughter cards, brackets, air filters, capacitors, transformers, memory single in-line modules (SIMs), power regulators, and hard drives. Failure to include these air blockages in the modeling process can result in systems that run too hot or that suffer from thermal shutdown. External blockages should be accounted for as well. Cabinet vents should not be located where a user might carelessly toss a magazine or CD cover. The impact of accumulated dust over the lifetime of the system should also be considered, as the dust can substantially reduce convection. From a PCB layout standpoint, the highest velocity air stream on the board may well occur between two tall components if they block the airflow path. The blockage causes the air to be channeled through the gap, resulting in higher air velocities. High-power electronic components can sometimes be more effectively cooled by placing them in this channeled air stream. Locations to avoid for high-power components are the leeward side of air blockages, immediately downstream of high-power components, or on the bottom center of a natural convectioncooled PCB.
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Required Component Thermal Parameters Thermal models of a PCB loaded with detailed models of components in a system can become very complex with many nodes. Such analyses can run for days and weeks, making them impractical. As well, it is often impossible to get detailed models of each component to be used in a system. To address these issues, the industry has developed two levels of component thermal abstraction. The first method reduces the electrical component s thermal behavior to two thermal resistances, qjc, which represents the thermal resistance from the active portion of the component to the top compoAmbient Node nent surface, and Theta-jb (qjb), which represents the thermal resistance between the Ambient Ra active portion of the component to a point Surface Node on the PCB at the edge of the component. The component is then represented to the system as shown in Fig. 17.13. The thermal resistance from the top of the component to Junction the ambient, Ra, is calculated either through CFD or from the convection coefficients. It also includes radiation heat losses. Thermal PCB conduction through the PCB to other components and to the air is calculated by the FIGURE 17.13 Thermal conduction representation simulation tool. Accuracy of a two-resistor of an electrical component by two thermal resistances, component thermal model temperature qjc and qjb. The resistance to ambient (Ra) is the result delta with respect to the ambient is in the of convective and radiative heat loss.
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