FIGURE 18.9 in Software

Encoder QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Software FIGURE 18.9

FIGURE 18.9
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The M in Mcommands stands for miscellaneous; in this case, M02 means stop or end of file.
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An annotated section of a Gerber file.
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The basic commands of this format include:
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Selecting the aperture Opening and closing the aperture shutter Moving the head to a given x, y coordinate
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Typically, commands are separated by the asterisk character (*).3 18.3.2.1.2 Gerber 274X. Gerber RS-274-X is a common format in use today for describing PCB plot data. The format can be divided into two parts:
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The Gerber part The extended part, which includes commands for the following:
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Standard aperture definition Aperture Macro definition (special symbols) Layer polarity selection
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Typically, extended commands begin with % and end with *%. Unlike Gerber 274D format, Gerber 274X includes definition of coordinates using the FS command (see Fig. 18.10). Reading software uses this information when reading Gerber parts. The most serious limitation of Gerber 274X is polygon representation. No solution was provided for describing internal cutouts or clearances. Each implementation of Gerber 274Xbased CAD output deals with these in its own way. The most problematic way is to use selfintersecting polygons (SIPs) where the pen does not leave the board while drawing the internal cutouts, but swerves to the inside of the external outline to draw the internal cutout and then returns (see Fig. 18.11).
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INFORMATION FORMATING AND EXCHANGE
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Example %FSLAX23Y23*% %MOIN*% %SFA1.000B1.000*% %ADD11C,0.00500*% %ADD13C,0.00800*% %ADD14C,0.01000*% %ADD70C,0.02000*% %ADD71C,0.02500*% G54D11* %LPD*% Here the Gerber part begins. This command indicates that digitized data is dark. However, when the entire film is reversed, the digitized data will be clear. These are aperture definition commands defining various diameter circles (5, 8, 10, 20, and 25 mil, respectively) This command indicates (L)eading zero suppression,(A)bsolute, 2.3, or xx.xxx and yy.yyy decimal point location This command specifies inches
G11*G70*G01*D02*G54D10*X-0020000Y-0250000D02*X-0020000Y-0265200D01* X0010000Y-0255000D02*X0010000Y-0250000D01*X0025200Y-0344800D02* X0025200Y-0285000D01*X0022800Y-0265200D02*X0022800Y-0270000D01* This is straight Gerber code with multiple commands on a line.
FIGURE 18.10 An annotated Gerber 274X section.
An SIP is a polygon with two nonconsecutive edges (segments or curves) touching each other. SIPs are illegal in CAM systems that define legal polygons as those whose edges intersect only at endpoints of consecutive edges. Translation of 274X data into a CAM system might fail with a Self Intersecting Polygon error because some CAD systems create surfaces using self-intersecting polygons. SIPs are not mathematically robust, and the following SIP operations are problematic:
Resizing (enlarge, shrink, scale especially with differing x and y values) Accurate copper calculations (these require unambiguous definition of the copper location)
Filled outline, clear cutout
FIGURE 18.11 SIP and non-SIP ways of drawing the same polygon: (a) An SIP: as drawn by self-intersection, with a single path and the pen not removed from the paper; (b) not an SIP with a filled rectangle as an outline and a clear rectangle as the cutout.
PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
Two rows of four clearances each
FIGURE 18.12 This surface is composed of one rectangular island, with a circular cutout in the top-right corner representing copper and eight round holes representing clearances.
In most CAM systems, a surface is a mathematical entity that describes planes. It can contain islands (positive polygons) and holes (negative polygons). If the layer is positive, islands represent copper, whereas holes represent non-copper (see Fig. 18.12). Copper planes usually implement power or ground connections, where the clearances provide spacing for data signal vias that pass through the plane but must be electrically disconnected from it. There are two non-ambiguous ways of drawing planes with cutouts in 274X. The first is to use positive polarity for the islands and negative polarity for the holes.The second is to decompose the plane into positive surfaces that, when combined, yield the outline with the holes. 18.3.2.2 Netlist Formats. A netlist is a set of connection points joined together to form networks. Each point represents a contact point on the surface of a bare board.A connection point can be either a drilled hole or a surface mount pad. All points belonging to one network should be connected to each other through PCB layer circuitry and/or power and ground planes. 18.3.2.2.1 IPC-D-356.* IPC-D-356 is an ANSI-accepted standard that has become the most widely used standard for transferring netlist information. The IPC-D-356 format is used to transfer netlist information within the PCB design and fabrication community. This information can be used to verify the integrity of the design by netlist extraction from the Gerber graphics and comparison with the IPC-D-356 CAD reference. The information is also used within both the bare board and the assembled board test domains. Most data in the IPC-D-356 file (see Fig. 18.13) consist of electrical test records of two types:
Drill records (starting with 317 ) Surface mount pad records (starting with 327 ) There are also other general parameter records.
*References ANSI/IPC-D-356 published by the Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (IPC).
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