read barcode scanner in c#.net Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use. in Software

Creator QR in Software Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.

Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.
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FIGURE 19.1 Design determines the majority of the cost of a product.
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Time to market along with competitive prices can determine a product s ultimate success. Having the first of a new electronic product on the market has many advantages. By planning the printed wiring board (PWB) layout and taking into consideration aspects and costs of PWB fabrication and assembly, the entire process of design and prototyping can be done with minimum redesign (or respins).
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Design Planning and Manufacturing Planning Electronics is one of the biggest enterprises globally. It is common for design to be done in one hemisphere and manufacturing in another. It is also common for manufacturing to be done in a number of different places simultaneously.An integrated approach must be adopted when the intention is to rationalize fabrication and assembly as part of the entire production system and not as individual entities, as shown in Fig. 19.2. This dispersed manufacturing must be taken into consideration during the design planning and layout process. No finished product is ever better than the original design or the materials from which it is made.
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PRODUCT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
DESIGN / DEVELOPMENT
PL ANNING AND RUNNING OF PRODUCTION
RAW MATERIALS FINISHED PROCESSING MATERIALS
BUYING
FIGURE 19.2
ASSEMBLY
SALE
Fabrication and assembly rationalized by planning and design.
PLANNING FOR DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND ASSEMBLY
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
The planning process central focus will be the trade-offs between the loss and gain in performance for layout, fabrication, assembly, and test versus the costs in these domains. Therefore, some major considerations will be discussed in the following sections:
New product design process (Secs. 19.3.1 and 19.3.2) The role of metrics (Secs. 19.3.3 and 19.3.4) Layout trade-off planning (Sec. 19.4) PWB fabrication trade-off planning (Sec. 19.5) Assembly trade-off planning (Sec. 19.6) Tools for manufacturing audits (Sec. 19.7)
Planning Concepts Planning for design, fabrication, and assembly (PDFA) is a methodology that addresses all the factors that can impact production and customer satisfaction. Early in the design process, the central idea of PDFA is to make design decisions to optimize particular domains, such as producibility, assemblability, and testability, as well as to fit into a product family, such as custom automated manufacturing. Planning takes place continuously in the electronic design environment (see Fig. 19.3). The data and specifications flow in one direction, from product concept to
Design Stages
Product Planning Logical Design Physical Design Concepts Detailed Design Mfg. Links Prototype Mfg.
Mech. Design
Design Logical Design Constraints Verify Logical Design Data Physical Design Constraints
Physical Physical Design Data DRC
Objectives
Design
Tech. Decision
Logic Comp Design Select
Tech. Decision
Comp Route Place
Mfg. Output
Film Paper Files Mfg. Review
FIGURE 19.3
Electronic design environment.
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Product Planning System Design Physical Design Concepts Detailed Design Mfg. Links Prototype Manufacturing
Per Cent Cumulative Design
Design cost accumulation versus intrinsic manufacturing costs.
Per Cent Mfg. cost Fixed
FIGURE 19.4
manufacturing. During the design process, 60 percent of the manufacturing costs are determined in the first stages of design when only 35 percent of the design engineering costs have been expended. The typical response is shown in Fig. 19.4.1
Producibility Producibility is now regarded as an intrinsic characteristic of a modern design. Like the concept of quality in manufacturing, such a characteristic must be built in, not inspected in. Producibility must be designed in; it cannot be a checkpoint in the design process or inspected in by tooling.
NEW PRODUCT DESIGN
The keys to superior producibility in new product design can be found in the expanded design process. One of those keys is the role of metrics or data-based analysis of planning trade-offs.
Expanded Design Process The new expanded design process that incorporates planning, trade-offs, and manufacturing audits is shown in Table 19.1. The process is made up of 12 separate functions that incorporate the planning and trade-offs sections in this book:
PLANNING FOR DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND ASSEMBLY
TABLE 19.1 The Expanded Electronics Design Process Function Specification Capture of system description Synthesis Trade-off Physical CAD Simulation Design advisor Manufacturability audit Tooling MFG PDM database Purpose User-supplied constraints and ideas formulate executable specifications. Technology trade-off analysis: balance of loss and gain in various domains performance versus cost. Generation of a netlist from the executable specifications. Selection of layout, fabrication, and assembly features versus cost. Conversion of netlists to system and module layouts. Detailed analysis of design structures to support all other design (CAD) activities. Continuous display of design rated by performance rules. Check of design to manufacturing design rules and capabilities. Conversion of module layouts to panel layout. Conversion of module layouts to physical products (fabrication or assembly). Enterprise wide database containing all product information (product data management, or PDM) including design files, libraries, manufacturing information and revisions, etc. Multi-team designs via access over the internet
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