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Drawer QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Software Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.

Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.
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Embedded components Components formed or inserted inside the primary interconnect substrate are said to be embedded. Embedded components can be either passives or actives (see the preceding definitions). Formed components A component that the circuit board fabricator manufactures inside the primary interconnect substrate (as opposed to on the surface) is said to be formed. Such components are made from raw materials at the same time as the board. Placed embedded components In contrast to formed components, components (both discrete passives and small actives) can also be placed inside the board using conventional placement machines and technologies. This manufacturing technique integrates very well with the any layer via type of contruction. See Fig. 21.1 for a cross section of a multilayer board with all types of embedded components.
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Embedded passive component Embedded passive component (Formed type) (Inserted type)
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FIGURE 21.1 Cross section of a multilayer board showing the use of all types of embedded components, both passive and active. (Courtesy of Jisso International Council [JIC].)
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Embedding components is not appropriate for all electronic packaging. A board designer must consider several factors when deciding whether to use embedded components or not. Use of discrete components, whether on the surface or placed inside the board, involves incremental costs in that the more components that are used, the higher the cost. However, the trade-off is that the cost of fabricating one formed embedded component is about the same as that of forming an entire layer of those components. Another factor to consider is that surface-mount components can have the same size and shape for widely differing electrical values. Formed embedded components on a single layer are larger and can increase electrical value. Widely differing electrical values may require more than one layer of embedded formed material.
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Advantages Advantages from embedding components inside the board include:
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Reduction in board area (enabler) Reduction in surface area results in more circuits per fabrication panel. Reduction in board size can yield a smaller board for the same functions, as components are now inside the board.
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EMBEDDED COMPONENTS
Increase in functionality, higher density (enabler) The surface area is the same, but some other function can be added. For example, the designer can increase cell phone capability by adding a Bluetooth connection to the ear piece receiver. Improvement in performance (enabler) Higher speeds, shorter paths, and lower noise are possible. For example, cell phones can be enhanced with built-in digital cameras or even video cameras. Improvement in total assembled costs System cost is key; the higher board price is often offset by a lower bill-of-materials purchased for the system, as fewer standard components are needed.
Disadvantages Disadvantages of embedding components include:
Quality can be affected; in particular, meeting tolerances can be more difficult. Trimming embedded resistors is slow and expensive. Design tools are lacking. The design is parametric where designer sizes components. Technology implementation does not give all values needed. Some capacitance values are not obtainable commercially (>100 nF/cm2). Manufacturers of sheet resistor materials make only one decade of values. The cost of prototypes can be high. Resistors cost the same whether one or thousands are made per layer. Test tools are lacking. Test voltages may cause dielectric breakdown. Charge-up time for capacitors may limit test speed. Rework is not possible inside the board. Additional capital investment is required.
Principles of Cost Trade-Off The circuit design tools identify the resistors and capacitors that must be added to make an electronic circuit functional. The tools simulate circuit operation and size the resistors and capacitors as appropriate. Whether a resistor is purchased and mounted on the board surface or formed inside the board from a layer of resistive material has little effect on the electrical operation of a circuit. Therefore, if many resistors can be formed inside the board from the same series of chemical steps, the inclusion of perhaps thousands of internal resistors costs no more than adding one internal formed resistor. The critical economic analysis is to find the cost of adding internal formed resistors and then dividing by the number that can be used internally to see whether embedded resistors inside the board make sense.
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