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FIGURE 21.4 Resistor trimming.
Embedded formed ceramic capacitors have been demonstrated, but the cure step for the ceramic capacitor composition (900 C) may limit this technology to very large shops that install the cure on copper foil technology also needed for ceramic resistors.
Inductor Fabrication Process Formation of inductors simply involves the design in copper circuitry, and then careful imaging and etching to ensure close tolerance conductors.
Active Integrated Circuit Fabrication Manufacture of formed embedded active devices has been demonstrated, but not produced commercially. An example is polymer semiconductor radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. Conventional RFID devices, now in mass production, use a tiny silicon integrated circuit, made conventionally and bonded to the antenna. Semiconducting polymers make up the source, drain, and gate of the integrated circuit and are applied by inkjet or screen printing.
EMBEDDED COMPONENTS
MATERIAL SUPPLY TYPES
Resistor Materials Formation of the resistor by the designer, working with the board fabricator, involves making a material selection. All resistor values are not possible with each raw material technology. Table 21.1 shows the various forms of the raw resistor material.
TABLE 21.1 Embedded Formed Resistor Supplier Types Process Photoprint (Sheet resistor material) Screen or stencil print Plating Inkjetting Photoimageable discrete Technology Thin-film etch (NiCr, Pt, NiP) Polymer thick-film addition (PTF) Ceramic thick-film addition (CTF) Selective addition Selective addition Photopolymer (filled)
Table 21.2 gives the range capability of the various resistor manufacturing technologies.
TABLE 21.2 Embedded Formed Resistor Ranges Resistance in Ohms Photoprint (NiCr, NiP) Photoprint (Pt) Screen or stencil print (PTF) Screen or stencil print (CTF) Plating Inkjetting Photoimageable discrete 10 X X X X X X 100 X X X X X X X 1,000 X X X X X X X 10e4 X X X X X 10e5 10e6
Where materials are sold in foil form or plated, only one value of resistors can be produced per layer. Since the resistive material is consistent across the panel, the final value of the finished resistor is determined by the length-to-width ratio. If the resistive material is made at 100 ohms per square properties, a resistor that is one unit wide and five units long will have a value of 500 ohms. Or, if the resistor is one unit long and five wide, the value will be 20 ohms. Practical resistor ranges evolve from the basic properties of the starting foil material. Paste compositions, both polymer and ceramic, can have different dispersions of resistive particles, thus giving widely variable resistance values. However, to limit manufacturing steps, selection of certain paste values, usually 10 to 15 times apart, are used. Thus, a design with resistors from 10 ohms to 100,000 ohms could use pastes of 100 / 1,000 / per square, and perhaps 50,000 / . A graphical representation of various formed resistor configurations is shown in Fig. 21.5. 21.6.2 Capacitor Materials Capacitors are needed in a great range of values. Capacitors may be the conventional discrete or a whole capacitance sheet may be used distributed capacitance. Distributed capacitance is quite useful electrically, when high-speed integrated circuits need voltage immediately to turn on or off. The distance to voltage planes may in fact be too long in some designs to allow efficient electrical operation of very fast integrated circuits.
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FIGURE 21.5 Embedded formed resistor configurations.
Since the area used to make the formed embedded capacitor can vary, to compare the capabilities of each technology, we must choose a standard area. Therefore, the capacitance at 1 sq. cm is convenient, as shown in Table 21.3. Capacitor values typically vary from a picofarad to a few microfarads. Thus, low picofarad applications in timing, decoupling, and filtering are the best applications for formed embedded capacitors inside circuit boards.
TABLE 21.3 Embedded Formed Capacitor Technologies Dielectric Constant 4.5 11.0 3.5 4.2 15 1500 22 150 Micron Thick 50 25 14 25 24 12 16 25 11 0.5 Capacitance of a 1 sq. cm Area 78 pF/cm2 156 pF/cm2 700 pF/cm2 122 pF/ cm2 140 pF/cm2 310 pF/cm2 850 pF/cm2 93 nF/cm2 (93,000 pF/cm2) 1.5 nF/ cm2 (1,500 pF/cm2) 150 300 nF/cm2
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