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TABLE 2.5 Effect of Increased Connectivity on Reduction of Layers Pad dia, in 0.055 0.036 0.025 0.025 Cond pitch, in 0.010 0.018 0.009 0.007 Id @ 500 ppm, layers 10 7 5 4 Id @ 200 ppm, layers 6 4 2 2 Id @ invisible via, layers 4 4 2 2
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Table 2.5 illustrates the most important result of increased connectivity per layer: a reduction in the number of signal layers needed to provide the same wiring density Wd. Table 2.5 was constructed by applying connectivity data from Table 2.4 to a 50-in2 MLB with total wiring length of 10,000 in. Note also that the layer count in Table 2.4 has been brought up to the next higher full-layer value, i.e., the calculated 1.4 layers have been recorded as 2 layers. The major benefit of such a reduction in the layer count is that it can result in a significant reduction of the manufacturing cost while providing the same total interconnection length.
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Reduction of Conductor Width An obvious method of increasing the connectivity of PWBs is to reduce the widths of conductors and spaces and thus increase the number of available wiring channels on each signal plane, as described previously. This is the direction that has been used in the IC and PWB industries for many years. However, it is impossible to decrease conductor widths or spaces indefinitely. The reduction of the conductor width is limited by the current-carrying capacity of thin, small conductors, especially when these conductors are long, as they frequently are on PWBs. There are processing limits to this conductor reduction, since manufacturing yields may plummet if the reduction stretches the process capabilities beyond their normal limits. There is also a limit to the reduction of the spaces between the conductors, governed mainly by electrical considerations, i.e., by the need to prevent excessive cross talk, to minimize noise, and to provide proper signal propagation conditions and characteristic impedance. Still, such conductor reductions, if achieved within the described limits, can be an effective path for increasing the PWB density and the reduction of PWB manufacturing costs. As seen from Table 2.6, constructed from cost data derived from the Columbus program of BPA, the reduction of conductor widths from 6 to 3 mils halves the number of signal layers necessary to
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TABLE 2.6 Effect of Conductor Widths on Number of Layers and Board Cost for a 6-in 8-in MLB, with Id = 450 in/in2, 65 to 68 Percent Yields Line-space 3 3 4 4 5 6 5 7 6 6 7 8 Total no. of layers 8 10 12 14 16 20 No. of signal layers 4 6 7 8 8 10 Board cost, % 55 64 77 87 90 100
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ensure the same connectivity (while their yields, interconnection density, and board area were kept constant). This reduction in the number of layers can significantly reduce the manufacturing costs of PWB boards.
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Effect of Conductor Widths on Board Yields It is obvious that any successful increase of conductor density Id in PWBs would be effective only if the processes exist that permit manufacture with reasonable yields. Unfortunately, the yields of thin conductors in PWBs fall rapidly as their widths are reduced below 5 mils, as shown in Fig. 2.10. Therefore, the understanding of manufacturing yields is very important for analysis of the most cost-effective manufacturing process, because the process yields have a major effect on the cost of interconnection substrates.
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Defect density for inner layers 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1
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Yield (%)
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5-mil line 4-mil line 3-mil line
100 1000 Length of traces (in)
FIGURE 2.10 Board yields vs. conductor width.
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0
Yield loss (%)
6 mil 4 mil 2 mil
400 600 Length of min. spacings (in)
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