barcode scanner in asp.net c# INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGY in Software

Encoder QR Code JIS X 0510 in Software INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-DENSITY INTERCONNECTION (HDI) TECHNOLOGY
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and layer structures. Experience and history will not help here. The unfortunate truth about printed circuit layout is that there is an almost infinite number of combinations of layer structures and design rules that can satisfy the schematic and bill of materials. With all these choices, especially the new ones that HDI offers, a trade-off tool is required to find the best set of design rules and features that allows the rapid design of a printed circuit board, is producible, and meets all the performance expectations while providing the lowest total manufacturing costs. When used early in the design process, before the actual physical design of the printed circuit, the tools require predictive models that can anticipate cost and performance. Information and processes for planning a HDI design can be found in Chap. 19 of this Handbook.Trade-off information of through-hole density and relative costs can be seen in Fig. 22.2.
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DIELECTRIC MATERIALS AND COATING METHODS
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This section provides an overview of the dielectric and applied conductive materials used in microvia and via filling. Some of these materials can be used in both IC chip carrier and PWB HDI applications. The discussions are focused on the HDI PWB arena and on materials for which information is readily available. In section 22.5.2, cross-references are made to the relevant material specifications of the IPC/JPCA-4104 specification for HDI and microvia materials. A brief material roadmap discussion is included to illustrate material property trends. Figure 22.7 shows the compatibility of laser via, photovia, and plasma via methods with four basic surface dielectric structures on which microvia holes are to be formed. Although laser via methods can cope with all four dielectric structures, photovia and plasma via methods are applicable to only one structure, respectively, as shown in the figure. This is one reason why laser via is more widely used today. Another wiring layer is built over the existing microvia holes, which become buried via holes (BVHs).
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FIGURE 22.7 Compatibility of via hole formation methods with four basic dielectric layer structures.
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The specification IPC-4104 will define material requirements for HDI applications. This IPC specification applies only to the surface HDI layers, the conventional multilayer core materials are covered by IPC specification IPC-4101B.
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
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Dielectric Format Coated Foil Reinforced Unreinforced Conventional Reinforced Laminate Woven Non-woven Liquid Photoimageable Non-photoimageable Dry Film Photoimageable Non-photoimageable
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FIGURE 22.8
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Via Formation
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Metallization Method
Epoxy
Laser Drilling
Additive Plating
Polyimide
Photoimaging
Semi-additive Plating
Acrylate
Dry or Wet Etching Plasma Caustic Mechanical Drilling Punching, piercing
Subtractive
Others
Conductive Ink
Material and technology choices for SBU fabrication. (Courtesy of DuPont.)
Materials for HDI Microvia Fabrication Figure 22.8 shows a material and technology selection flowchart for use when choosing dielectric materials. In using the flowchart, you should ask the following questions regarding the dielectric you are considering:
Will the dielectric use chemistry compatible with current chemistry used by core substrate material Will the dielectric have acceptable plated copper adhesion (Many original equipment manufacturers [OEMs] want 6 lb/in [1.08 kgm/cm] per 1 oz. [35.6 mm] copper.) Will the dielectric provide adequate and reliable dielectric spacing between metal layers Will it meet thermal needs Will the dielectric provide a desirable high Tg for wire bonding and rework Will it survive thermal shock with multiple SBU layers (i.e., solder floats, accelerated thermal cycles, multiple reflows) Will it have platable, reliable microvias (that is, will it have latitude to ensure good plating to the bottom of the via)
22.5.1.1 Copper-Clad Dielectric Materials. Due to relative ease of implementation, copperclad dielectrics are used on a larger scale than unclad dielectrics. Copper-clad dielectrics provide a method that requires the least number of changes in manufacturing flow because they typically use the same dielectric and reinforcements found in standard PWBs. Copper-clad-based materials have a longer history in making blind vias than any other method. This makes many designers, OEMs, and PWB fabricators more comfortable with copper-clad-based materials. These materials can be nonreinforced or reinforced. The reinforcement can be woven or non-woven and can be aramid, glass, and so on.These dielectrics are suitable for via formation by laser or other mechanical removal methods.
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